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Cas Database

1333-74-0

1333-74-0

Identification

  • Product Name:Hydrogen

  • CAS Number: 1333-74-0

  • EINECS:215-605-7

  • Molecular Weight:2.01588

  • Molecular Formula: H2

  • HS Code:

  • Mol File:1333-74-0.mol

Synonyms:Dihydrogen;Hydrogen (H2);Hydrogen molecule;Mol. hydrogen;Molecular hydrogen;Orthohydrogen;Parahydrogen;Protium;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):HighlyF+

  • Hazard Codes:F+

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H220 Extremely flammable gas

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. In case of skin contact ON FROSTBITE: rinse with plenty of water, do NOT remove clothes. Refer immediately for medical attention. In case of eye contact ON FROSTBITE: rinse with plenty of water. Refer immediately for medical attention. If swallowed Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician. Excerpt from ERG Guide 115 [Gases - Flammable (Including Refrigerated Liquids)]: Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Some may be irritating if inhaled at high concentrations. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. (ERG, 2016)

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media Approach fire with caution as high-temperature flame is practically invisible. Stop flow of gas before extinguishing fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Use flooding quantities of water as fog or spray. Excerpt from ERG Guide 115 [Gases - Flammable (Including Refrigerated Liquids)]: EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. CAUTION: Hydrogen (UN1049), Deuterium (UN1957), Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid (UN1966) and Methane (UN1971) are lighter than air and will rise. Hydrogen and Deuterium fires are difficult to detect since they burn with an invisible flame. Use an alternate method of detection (thermal camera, broom handle, etc.) Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release flammable gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket. (ERG, 2016) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Ventilation. Remove all ignition sources. Remove vapour with fine water spray. Eliminate all ignition sources. Approach release from upwind. Stop or control the leak, if this can be done without undue risk. Use water spray to disperse vapors and protect personnel.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Fireproof. Cool. Ventilation along the floor and ceiling. Separated from oxidizing materials.Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Isolate from oxygen, halogens, other oxidizing materials.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesBiological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

Supplier and reference price

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  • Manufacture/Brand:Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product Description:Hydrogen ≥99.99%
  • Packaging:56l
  • Price:$ 259
  • Delivery:In stock
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product Description:Hydrogen ≥99.99%
  • Packaging:57l
  • Price:$ 253
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Oakwood
  • Product Description:Hydrogen
  • Packaging:56L
  • Price:$ 190
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  • Manufacture/Brand:American Custom Chemicals Corporation
  • Product Description:HYDROGEN 95.00%
  • Packaging:56L
  • Price:$ 6551.74
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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 2245 Articles be found

New assay method based on Raman spectroscopy for enzymes reacting with gaseous substrates

Kawahara-Nakagawa, Yuka,Nishikawa, Koji,Nakashima, Satoru,Inoue, Shota,Ohta, Takehiro,Ogura, Takashi,Shigeta, Yasuteru,Fukutani, Katsuyuki,Yagi, Tatsuhiko,Higuchi, Yoshiki

, p. 663 - 670 (2019)

Enzyme activity is typically assayed by quantitatively measuring the initial and final concentrations of the substrates and/or products over a defined time period. For enzymatic reactions involving gaseous substrates, the substrate concentrations can be estimated either directly by gas chromatography or mass spectrometry, or indirectly by absorption spectroscopy, if the catalytic reactions involve electron transfer with electron mediators that exhibit redox-dependent spectral changes. We have developed a new assay system for measuring the time course of enzymatic reactions involving gaseous substrates based on Raman spectroscopy. This system permits continuous monitoring of the gas composition in the reaction cuvette in a non-invasive manner over a prolonged time period. We have applied this system to the kinetic study of the [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F. This enzyme physiologically catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 and also possesses the nonphysiological functions of H/D exchange and nuclear spin isomer conversion reactions. The proposed system has the additional advantage of enabling us to measure all of the hydrogenase-mediated reactions simultaneously. Using the proposed system, we confirmed that H2 (the fully exchanged product) is concomitantly produced alongside HD by the H/D exchange reaction in the D2/H2O system. Based on a kinetic model, the ratio of the rate constants of the H/D exchange reaction (k) at the active site and product release rate (kout) was estimated to be 1.9 ± 0.2. The proposed assay method based on Raman spectroscopy can be applied to the investigation of other enzymes involving gaseous substrates.

Visible-light-driven methane formation from CO2 with a molecular iron catalyst

Rao, Heng,Schmidt, Luciana C.,Bonin, Julien,Robert, Marc

, p. 74 - 77 (2017)

Converting CO2 into fuel or chemical feedstock compounds could in principle reduce fossil fuel consumption and climate-changing CO2 emissions. One strategy aims for electrochemical conversions powered by electricity from renewable sources, but photochemical approaches driven by sunlight are also conceivable. A considerable challenge in both approaches is the development of efficient and selective catalysts, ideally based on cheap and Earth-abundant elements rather than expensive precious metals. Of the molecular photo- and electrocatalysts reported, only a few catalysts are stable and selective for CO2 reduction; moreover, these catalysts produce primarily CO or HCOOH, and catalysts capable of generating even low to moderate yields of highly reduced hydrocarbons remain rare. Here we show that an iron tetraphenylporphyrin complex functionalized with trimethylammonio groups, which is the most efficient and selective molecular electro- catalyst for converting CO2 to CO known, can also catalyse the eight-electron reduction of CO2 to methane upon visible light irradiation at ambient temperature and pressure. We find that the catalytic system, operated in an acetonitrile solution containing a photosensitizer and sacrificial electron donor, operates stably over several days. CO is the main product of the direct CO2 photoreduction reaction, but a two-pot procedure that first reduces CO2 and then reduces CO generates methane with a selectivity of up to 82 per cent and a quantum yield (light-to-product efficiency) of 0.18 per cent. However, we anticipate that the operating principles of our system may aid the development of other molecular catalysts for the production of solar fuels from CO2 under mild conditions.

Formal Kinetic Description of Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution from Ethanol Aqueous Solutions in the Presence of Sodium Hydroxide

Markovskaya,Kozlova

, (2018)

Abstract: The dependences of the rate of the photocatalytic hydrogen production in ethanol aqueous solutions on the concentration of ethanol and sodium hydroxide on the 1% Pt/10% Ni(OH)2/Cd0.3Zn0.7S photocatalyst under vis

Surface modification of Ni/Al2O3 with Pt: Highly efficient catalysts for H2 generation via selective decomposition of hydrous hydrazine

He, Lei,Huang, Yanqiang,Wang, Aiqin,Liu, Yu,Liu, Xiaoyan,Chen, Xiaowei,Delgado, Juan Jose,Wang, Xiaodong,Zhang, Tao

, p. 1 - 9 (2013)

Hydrous hydrazine, such as hydrazine monohydrate (N2H 4·H2O), is a promising hydrogen carrier material due to its high content of hydrogen (8.0 wt%). The decomposition of hydrous hydrazine to H2 with a high selectivity and a high activity under mild conditions is the key to its potential usage as a hydrogen carrier material. Platinum-modified Ni/Al2O3 catalysts (NiPt x/Al2O3) were prepared starting from Ni-Al hydrotalcite and tested in the decomposition of hydrous hydrazine. Compared with Ni/Al2O3, the TOF was enhanced sevenfold over NiPt 0.057/Al2O3; meanwhile, the selectivity to H2 was increased to 98%. Characterization results by means of HAADF-STEM, XRD, and EXAFS revealed the presence of surface Pt-Ni alloy in this Pt-promoted catalyst. The formation of Pt-Ni alloy could significantly weaken the interaction between adspecies produced (including H2 and NH x) and surface Ni atoms, which is confirmed by microcalorimetry and TPD results. The weakening effect could account for the greatly enhanced reaction rate, as well as H2 selectivity on NiPtx/Al 2O3 catalysts.

Tribarium tetrahedro-tetragermanide acetylenide, Ba3[Ge4][C2]: Synthesis, structure, and properties

Curda, Jan,Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder,Schmeding, André,Peters, Karl,Somer, Mehmet,Von Schnering, Hans Georg

, p. 929 - 936 (1997)

Ba3Ge4C2 is formed at 1530 K from the elements or by reaction of BaC2 with BaGe2 (corundum crucible; steel ampoule). The compound is a semiconductor (grey colour; Eg = 1.1 eV), brittle, very sensitive to moisture, and reacts with NH4Cl at about 400 K forming acetylene and germanes up to Ge4Hn. The new Ba3Ge4C2 structure type (space group I4/mcm, No. 140; a = 8.840(1) ?, c = 12.466(1) ?; Z = 4, Pearson code tI36), contains two kinds of isolated polyanions, namely tetrahedro-tetragermanide [Ge4]4- and acetylenide [C2]2- anions. The bond lengths are d(Ge-Ge) = 2.517 ? (4x) and 2.641 ? (2x), and d(C≡C) = 1.20 ?. The Ba3[Ge4][C2] structure is a hierarchical derivative of the perovskite (CaTiO3) generated by a partial atom/cluster replacement ([Ge4] for Ca, [C2] for Ti and Ba for O). The Raman spectrum shows bands at 168, 199 and 280 cm-1, and at 1796 cm-1 characteristic for [Ge4]4- and [C2]2 polyanions, respectively.

A simple glucose route to nickel and cobalt phosphide catalysts

Zhang, Wanting,Ding, Wei,Yao, Zhiwei,Shi, Yan,Sun, Yue,Kang, Xiaoxue

, p. 826 - 831 (2021)

In this work, we have developed a simple one-step synthesis of Ni2P and CoP phosphides based on a carbonization process. The current approach uses glucose as a reductant instead of H2 and employs inert gas as feed gas. The Ni2P/C and CoP/C obtained by the glucose route showed higher CH4-CO2 reforming performance than corresponding phosphides prepared by traditional H2 reduction method, which should be attributed to the fact that the phosphides prepared by glucose route had higher surface areas and smaller particle sizes than the ones prepared by traditional method.

Photochemical In Situ Exfoliation of Metal–Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Visible-Light-Driven CO2 Reduction

Chen, Er-Xia,He, Liang,Huang, Shan-Lin,Lin, Qipu,Luo, Ming-Bu,Wei, Qin,Zheng, Hui-Li

, p. 23588 - 23592 (2021)

Two novel two-dimensional metal–organic frameworks (2D MOFs), 2D-M2TCPE (M=Co or Ni, TCPE=1,1,2,2-tetra(4-carboxylphenyl)ethylene), which are composed of staggered (4,4)-grid layers based on paddlewheel-shaped dimers, serve as heterogeneous photocatalysts for efficient reduction of CO2 to CO. During the visible-light-driven catalysis, these structures undergo in situ exfoliation to form nanosheets, which exhibit excellent stability and improved catalytic activity. The exfoliated 2D-M2TCPE nanosheets display a high CO evolution rate of 4174 μmol g?1 h?1 and high selectivity of 97.3 % for M=Co and Ni, and thus are superior to most reported MOFs. The performance differences and photocatalytic mechanisms have been studied with theoretical calculations and photoelectric experiments. This study provides new insight for the controllable synthesis of effective crystalline photocatalysts based on structural and morphological coregulation.

Effect of the preparation method of support on the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol over 2 wt% Pt/Ce0.15Zr0.85O2 Catalysts

Kim, Jung-Hyun,Jeong, Kwang-Eun,Kim, Tae-Wan,Chae, Ho-Jeong,Jeong, Soon-Yong,Kim, Chu-Ung,Lee, Kwan-Young

, p. 5874 - 5878 (2013)

The effect of catalyst support on the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol over supported 2 wt% Pt/Ce0.15Zr0.85O2 catalysts have been investigated. Various types of Ce0.15Zr0.85O2 mixed oxides were prepared by hydrothermal prec

Synthetic Metallodithiolato Ligands as Pendant Bases in [FeIFeI], [FeI[Fe(NO)]II], and [(μ-H)FeIIFeII] Complexes

Bhuvanesh, Nattamai,Darensbourg, Donald J.,Darensbourg, Marcetta Y.,Elrod, Lindy Chase,Ghosh, Pokhraj,Hsieh, Chung-H.,Kariyawasam Pathirana, Kavindu Dilshan

, (2020)

The development of ligands with specific stereo- and electrochemical requirements that are necessary for catalyst design challenges synthetic chemists in academia and industry. The crucial aza-dithiolate linker in the active site of [FeFe]-H2ase has inspired the development of synthetic analogues that utilize ligands which serve as conventional σ donors with pendant base features for H+ binding and delivery. Several MN2S2 complexes (M = Ni2+, [Fe(NO)]2+, [Co(NO)]2+, etc.) utilize these cis-dithiolates to bind low valent metals and also demonstrate the useful property of hemilability, i.e., alternate between bi- and monodentate ligation. Herein, synthetic efforts have led to the isolation and characterization of three heterotrimetallics that employ metallodithiolato ligand binding to di-iron scaffolds in three redox levels, (μ-pdt)[Fe(CO)3]2, (μ-pdt)[Fe(CO)3][(Fe(NO))II(IMe)(CO)]+, and (μ-pdt)(μ-H)[FeII(CO)2(PMe3)]2+ to generate (μ-pdt)[(FeI(CO)3][FeI(CO)2·NiN2S2] (1), (μ-pdt)[FeI(CO)3][(Fe(NO))II(IMe)(CO)]+ (2), and (μ-pdt)(μ-H)[FeII(CO)2(PMe3)][FeII(CO)(PMe3)·NiN2S2]+ (3) complexes (pdt = 1,3-propanedithiolate, IMe = 1,3-dimethylimidazole-2-ylidene, NiN2S2 = [N,N′-bis(2-mercaptidoethyl)-1,4-diazacycloheptane] nickel(II)). These complexes display efficient metallodithiolato binding to the di-iron scaffold with one thiolate-S, which allows the free unbound thiolate to potentially serve as a built-in pendant base to direct proton binding, promoting a possible Fe-H-···+H-S coupling mechanism for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the presence of acids. Ligand substitution studies on 1 indicate an associative/dissociative type reaction mechanism for the replacement of the NiN2S2 ligand, providing insight into the Fe-S bond strength.

Photocatalytic Formic Acid Conversion on CdS Nanocrystals with Controllable Selectivity for H2 or CO

Kuehnel, Moritz F.,Wakerley, David W.,Orchard, Katherine L.,Reisner, Erwin

, p. 9627 - 9631 (2015)

Formic acid is considered a promising energy carrier and hydrogen storage material for a carbon-neutral economy. We present an inexpensive system for the selective room-temperature photocatalytic conversion of formic acid into either hydrogen or carbon monoxide. Under visible-light irradiation (λ>420 nm, 1 sun), suspensions of ligand-capped cadmium sulfide nanocrystals in formic acid/sodium formate release up to 116±14 mmolH2gcat-1h-1 with >99% selectivity when combined with a cobalt co-catalyst; the quantum yield at λ=460 nm was 21.2±2.7%. In the absence of capping ligands, suspensions of the same photocatalyst in aqueous sodium formate generate up to 102±13 mmolCOgcat-1h-1 with >95% selectivity and 19.7±2.7% quantum yield. H2 and CO production was sustained for more than one week with turnover numbers greater than 6×105 and 3×106, respectively.

Large Current Density CO2 Reduction under High Pressure Using Gas Diffusion Electrodes

Hara, Kohjiro,Sakata, Tadayoshi

, p. 571 - 576 (1997)

Electrochemical reduction of CO2 was studied under high pressure on Co, Rh, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, and Cu electrocatalysts supported in the gas diffusion electrode (GDE). CO was produced on Pd and Ag catalysts at faradaic efficiencies of 58 and 86%, respectively, at 300 mA cm-2 under CO2 20 atm. In the case of Cu-GDE, CO and formic acid were produced as the main reduction products. Hydrogen was the predominant reduction product in the electrolyses using other GDEs. Effects of the CO2 pressure, the current density, and the passed charge in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 using Pd and Ag-GDEs were investigated in detail. The maximum partial current density of CO formed on the Pd-GDE under CO2 20 atm was 450 mA cm-2. A very large partial current density of CO formation of 3.05 A cm-2 was achieved in the electrolysis under 30 atm on the Ag-GDE.

Hydrogen generation from highly activated Al-Ce composite materials in pure water

Luo, Hui,Liu, Jie,Pu, Xuxin,Liang, Jie,Wang, Zhengjun,Wang, Feijiu,Zhang, Kun,Peng, Yingjie,Xu, Bo,Li, Jihong,Yu, Xibin

, p. 3976 - 3982 (2011)

The reaction of aluminum with pure water is an eco-friendly approach to generate hydrogen. The main difficulty associated with this approach is that an oxide or hydroxide protective film around aluminum particles prohibit the hydrogen generation. In this

Electroreduction of a CoII coordination complex producing a metal-organic film with high performance toward electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

Bezerra, Leticia S.,Rosa, Persiely P.,Fortunato, Guilherme V.,Pizzuti, Lucas,Casagrande, Gleison A.,Maia, Gilberto

, p. 19590 - 19603 (2018)

This paper describes the synthesis and structural characterization of a novel, cheap and simple CoII complex (CoII(L)2Cl2) based on the 1,3,5-trisubstituted-pyrazoline ligand along with the electrochemical production of metal-organic electroactive films derived from this new complex. These systems were applied as electrocatalysts for hydrogen production (ACN/ACA or ACN/TFA medium) where both materials presented high performance toward hydrogen evolution. Compared to the CoII complex, the electroactive films exhibited significant electroactivity toward hydrogen evolution, presenting a remarkable TOF for H2 production (312:900 s-1, corrected by Faraday efficiency) in the presence of TFA. In addition, the generated metal-organic film showed high stability toward the electrocatalytic hydrogen production, supporting at least 1000 cycles at 20 mV s-1 in the large potential range investigated, as well as good performance and stability in the presence of 0.5 M H2SO4. Relevant insights into the mechanistic details and the role played by the CoII complex and the films during the catalytic hydrogen production are also discussed in light of the structural features and electrochemical experiments.

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-Borane over Ni/ZIF-8 Nanocatalyst: High Efficiency, Mechanism, and Controlled Hydrogen Release

Wang, Changlong,Tuninetti, Jimena,Wang, Zhao,Zhang, Chen,Ciganda, Roberto,Salmon, Lionel,Moya, Sergio,Ruiz, Jaime,Astruc, Didier

, p. 11610 - 11615 (2017)

Non-noble metal nanoparticles are notoriously difficult to prepare and stabilize with appropriate dispersion, which in turn severely limits their catalytic functions. Here, using zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) as MOF template, catalytically remark

Unsymmetrical dirhodium single molecule photocatalysts for H2production with low energy light

Millet, Agustin,Xue, Congcong,Turro, Claudia,Dunbar, Kim R.

, p. 2061 - 2064 (2021)

New axially blocked unsymmetrical dirhodium complexes photocatalyze the production of H2under red light irradiation with a turnover number (TON) of 23 ± 3 in the presence of acid and a sacrificial donor. The presence of multiple metal/ligand-to-ligand charge transfer transitions improves their absorption of light into the near-IR.

Optical analyses (SE and ATR) and other properties of LPCVD Si3N4 thin films

Wu, Yun,Zhong, Huicai,Romero, Jeremias,Tabery, Cyrus,Cheung, Cristina,MacDonald, Brian,Bhakta, Jay,Halliyal, Arvind,Cheung, Fred,Ogle, Robert

, p. G785-G789 (2003)

Thin silicon nitride films (less than 20 nm) deposited on (100) silicon substrates via low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) at three temperature (730, 760, and 825°C) were analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), attenuated total reflection (ATR), and other tools. Films appeared to have similar optical bandgaps (~5 eV), and the values decreased slightly with the higher deposition temperature. Second ionic mass spectroscopy results showed that a similar amount of oxygen exists in the interface between silicon and silicon nitride. ATR spectra showed no sign of Si-H bonds and decreasing N-H bonds at higher deposition temperature in the thin films. The electrical properties of the films are also discussed.

Photocatalytic H2 evolution from NADH with carbon quantum dots/Pt and 2-phenyl-4-(1-naphthyl)quinolinium ion

Wu, Wenting,Zhan, Liying,Ohkubo, Kei,Yamada, Yusuke,Wu, Mingbo,Fukuzumi, Shunichi

, p. 63 - 70 (2015)

Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were simply blended with platinum salts (K2PtCl4 and K2PtCl6) and converted into a hydrogen-evolution co-catalyst in situ, wherein Pt salts were dispersed on the surface of CQDs under photoirradiation of an aqueous solution of NADH (an electron and proton source) and 2-phenyl-4-(1-naphthyl)quinolinium ion (QuPh+-NA) employed as an organic photocatalyst. The co-catalyst (CQDs/Pt) exhibits similar catalytic reactivity in H2 evolution as that of pure Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) although the Pt amount of CQDs/Pt was only 1/200 that of PtNPs previously reported. CQDs were able to capture the Pt salt acting as Pt supports. Meanwhile, CQDs act as electron reservoir, playing an important role to enhance electron transfer from QuPh+-NA to the Pt salt, which was confirmed by kinetic studies, XPS and HRTEM.

In situ preparation of a novel organo-inorganic 6,13-pentacenequinone-TiO2 coupled semiconductor nanosystem: A new visible light active photocatalyst for hydrogen generation

Pandit, Vikram,Arbuj, Sudhir,Hawaldar, Ranjit,Kshirsagar, Pradnya,Mulik, Uttam,Gosavi, Suresh,Park, Chan-Jin,Kale, Bharat

, p. 4338 - 4344 (2015)

Previous studies related to the synthesis of stable UV-visible light active photocatalysts for hydrogen generation have been limited to inorganic semiconductors and their nano- and hetero-structures. We demonstrate here the use of an organo-inorganic 6,13-pentacenequinone (PQ)-TiO2 coupled semiconductor nanosystem as an efficient photocatalyst active in visible light for the production of hydrogen. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (3-5 nm) were uniformly decorated on thin sheets of monoclinic PQ by an in situ solvothermal method. These as-prepared PQ-TiO2 coupled semiconductor nanosystems had a band gap in the range 2.7-2.8 eV. The strong emission at 590 nm can be attributed to the transfer of electrons from the LUMO energy level of TiO2 to combine with the holes present in the HOMO level of PQ. This electron-hole recombination makes availability of electrons and holes in LUMO of PQ and HOMO of TiO2, respectively. This hybrid semiconductor coupled nanosystem resulted in a rate of hydrogen evolution of 36 456 μmol h-1 g-1 from H2S under UV-visible light; this is four times higher than the rate obtained with TiO2 in earlier reports of UV-visible light active photocatalysts. These results open up a new path to explore inorganic systems coupled with PQ as new photoactive hybrid catalysts in a number of chemical and physicochemical processes. This journal is

The mechanism of methane reforming with carbon dioxide: Comparison of supported Pt and Ni (Co) catalysts

Bychkov,Tyulenin,Korchak

, p. 353 - 359 (2003)

CH4 reforming with CO2 is one of the promising processes for natural gas conversion. Since the chemical properties of Pt radically differs from those of Ni/Co, the interaction of the catalyst 5.16 wt % Pt/α-Al2O3 with CH4, O2, CO2, and CH4 + CO2 pulses was investigated. CH4 activation occurred via a common pathway via dissociative chemisorption on the metal surface with the formation of H2 and carbon on all the catalysts. CO2 activation on Pt/Al2O3 differed from its activation on Ni(Co)/Al2O3. Pt/Al2O3 was graphite-like in contrast to carbide carbon on Ni(Co)/Al2O3. This graphite carbon was more stable and less reactive. This prevented it from being an active intermediate of CO2 reforming of CH4.

Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide at various series of copper single crystal electrodes

Hori,Takahashi,Koga,Hoshi

, p. 39 - 47 (2003)

Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide was studied with various series of copper single crystal electrodes in 0.1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution at constant current density 5 mA cm-2; the electrodes employed are Cu(S)-[n(1 0 0) x (1 1

Enhanced hydrogen production by carbon-doped TiO2 decorated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under visible light irradiation

Kuang, Liyuan,Zhang, Wen

, p. 2479 - 2488 (2016)

Enhancing visible light utilization by photocatalysts, avoiding electron-hole recombination, and facilitating charge transfer are three major challenges to the success of sustainable photocatalytic systems. In our study, carbon-doped TiO2 was s

Micro-/Mesoporous Platinum–SiCN Nanocomposite Catalysts (Pt@SiCN): From Design to Catalytic Applications

Sachau, Sabrina M.,Zaheer, Muhammad,Lale, Abhijeet,Friedrich, Martin,Denner, Christine E.,Demirci, Umit B.,Bernard, Samuel,Motz, Günter,Kempe, Rhett

, p. 15508 - 15512 (2016)

The synthesis, characterization, and catalytic studies of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) supported by a polymer-derived SiCN matrix are reported. In the first step and under mild conditions (110 °C), a block copolymer (BCP) based on hydroxyl-group-terminated linear polyethylene (PEOH) and a commercially available polysilazane (PSZ: HTT 1800) were synthesized. Afterwards, the BCP was microphase separated, modified with an aminopyridinato (Ap) ligand-stabilized Pt complex, and cross-linked. The green bodies thus obtained were pyrolyzed at 1000 °C under nitrogen and provided porous Pt@SiCN nanocomposite via decomposition of the PEOH block while Pt nanoparticles grew in situ within the SiCN matrix. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies confirmed the presence of the cubic Pt phase in the amorphous SiCN matrix whereas transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed homogeneously distributed Pt nanoparticles in the size of 0.9 to 1.9 nm. N2sorption studies indicated the presence of micro- and mesopores. Pt@SiCN appears to be an active and robust catalyst in the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride under harsh conditions.

Improved hydrogen release from ammonia borane confined in microporous carbon with narrow pore size distribution

Yang, Zhuxian,Zhou, Dan,Chen, Binling,Liu, Zongjian,Xia, Qinghua,Zhu, Yanqiu,Xia, Yongde

, p. 15395 - 15400 (2017)

Ammonia borane is a promising hydrogen storage candidate due to its high hydrogen capacity and good stability at room temperature, but there are still some barriers to be overcome before it can be used for practical applications. We present the hydrogen release from ammonia borane confined in templated microporous carbon with extremely narrow pore size distribution. Compared with neat ammonia borane, the hydrogen release temperature of ammonia borane confined in microporous carbon with a pore size of 1.05 nm is significantly reduced, starting at 50 °C and with the peak dehydrogenation temperature centred at 86 °C. The dehydrogenation kinetics of ammonia borane confined in templated microporous carbon is significantly improved and by-products including ammonia and diborane are also completely prohibited without any catalysts involved. The remarkably fast hydrogen release rate and high hydrogen storage capacity from ammonia borane confined in microporous carbon are due to the dramatic decrease in the activation energy of ammonia borane. This has been so far the best performance among porous carbon materials used as the confinement scaffolds for ammonia borane in hydrogen storage, making AB confined in microporous carbon a very promising candidate for hydrogen storage.

Catalytic activity of mesoporous Ni/CNT, Ni/SBA-15 and (Cu, Ca, Mg, Mn, Co)-Ni/SBA-15 catalysts for CO2 reforming of CH4

Dai, Yong-Ming,Lu, Chi-Yuan,Chang, Chi-Jen

, p. 73887 - 73896 (2016)

The CO2 reforming of CH4 to H2 over a catalyst is an effective method for renewable energy generation. In this study, SBA-15 and CNT were chosen as supports for the Ni-based catalysts prepared by the impregnation method. The FESEM images demonstrated that NiO particles were rhombic and well distributed on the SBA-15 surface. The XRD patterns showed that the chemical state of Ni changed after the reforming reaction; the main crystals on the fresh and spent Ni/SBA-15 were found to be NiO and Ni0. The catalytic performance of Ni/SBA-15 in CO2/CH4 reforming was found to be superior to that of Ni/CNT. The results of the TGA and BET analysis demonstrated that spent Ni/SBA-15 (at 600 °C) showed no catalytic decay as an insignificant amount of coke was deposited on the catalyst supports. Moreover, Ni-based bimetallic catalysts were studied for the reforming reaction, and the activity of the catalysts with respect to metals was observed to follow a particular order: Cu-Ni > Mg-Ni > Co-Ni > Ca-Ni > Mn-Ni. The Cu-Ni/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity at a reaction temperature of 650 °C as compared to the others; the H2 yield (40%) was not decreased as the reaction time increased, and the conversion of CO2 and CH4 is 77% and 75%, respectively.

Conformational Effects of [Ni2(μ-ArS)2] Cores on Their Electrocatalytic Activity

Mondragón-Díaz, Alexander,Robles-Marín, Elvis,Murueta-Cruz, Brenda A.,Aquite, Juan C.,Martínez-Alanis, Paulina R.,Flores-Alamo, Marcos,Aullón, Gabriel,Benítez, Luis Norberto,Castillo, Ivan

, p. 3301 - 3312 (2019)

Two nickel complexes supported by tridentate NS2 ligands, [Ni2(κ-N,S,S,S′-NPh{CH2(MeC6H2R′)S}2)2] (1; R′=3,5-(CF3)2C6H3) and [Ni2(κ-N,S,S,S′-NiBu{CH2C6H4S}2)2] (2), were prepared as bioinspired models of the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenases. The solid-state structure of 1 reveals that the [Ni2(μ-ArS)2] core is bent, with the planes of the nickel centers at a hinge angle of 81.3(5)°, whereas 2 shows a coplanar arrangement between both nickel(II) ions in the dimeric structure. Complex 1 electrocatalyzes proton reduction from CF3COOH at ?1.93 (overpotential of 1.04 V, with icat/ip≈21.8) and ?1.47 V (overpotential of 580 mV, with icat/ip≈5.9) versus the ferrocene/ferrocenium redox couple. The electrochemical behavior of 1 relative to that of 2 may be related to the bent [Ni2(μ-ArS)2] core, which allows proximity of the two Ni???Ni centers at 2.730(8) ?; thus possibly favoring H+ reduction. In contrast, the planar [Ni2(μ-ArS)2] core of 2 results in a Ni???Ni distance of 3.364(4) ? and is unstable in the presence of acid.

Ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes

Blaquiere, Nicole,Diallo-Garcia, Sarah,Gorelsky, Serge I.,Black, Daniel A.,Fagnou, Keith

, p. 14034 - 14035 (2008)

The dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB) and methylammonia borane (MeAB) is shown to be catalyzed by several Ru-amido complexes. Up to 1 equiv of H2 (1.0 system wt %) is released from AB by as little as 0.03 mol % Ru within 5 min, and up to 2 equiv of H2 (3.0 system wt %) are released from MeAB with 0.5 mol % Ru in under 10 min at room temperature, the first equivalent emerging within 10 s. Also, a mixture of AB/MeAB yields up to 3.6 system wt % H2 within 1 h with 0.1 mol % Ru. Computational studies were performed to elucidate the mechanism of dehydrogenation of AB. Finally, it was shown that alkylamine-boranes can serve as a source of H2 in the Ru-catalyzed reduction of ketones and imines. Copyright

Gas Reactions of Carbon

Walker Jr.,Rusinko Jr., Frank,Austin

, p. 133 - 221 (1959)

-

Hydrogenation properties of Mg2AlNi2 and mechanical alloying in the Mg-Al-Ni system

Parente,Nale,Catti,Kopnin,Caracino

, p. 420 - 424 (2009)

Samples with MgmAlNin composition (m, n ≤ 3) were synthesized by ball milling in form of crystalline nanoparticles, and were found to be a single phase with partially disordered CsCl-type cubic structure. For compositions with large

Trans-(Cl)-[Ru(5,5′-diamide-2,2′-bipyridine)(CO)2Cl2]: Synthesis, Structure, and Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction Activity

Kuramochi, Yusuke,Fukaya, Kyohei,Yoshida, Makoto,Ishida, Hitoshi

, p. 10049 - 10060 (2015)

A series of trans-(Cl)-[Ru(L)(CO)2Cl2]-type complexes, in which the ligands L are 2,2′-bipyridyl derivatives with amide groups at the 5,5′-positions, are synthesized. The C-connected amide group bound to the bipyridyl ligand through

B-methyl amine borane derivatives: Synthesis, characterization, and hydrogen release

Campbell, Patrick G.,Ishibashi, Jacob S.A.,Zakharov, Lev N.,Liu, Shih-Yuan

, p. 521 - 524 (2014)

We describe the synthesis of MeH2N-BH2Me (3) and H3N-BH2Me (4) as potential hydrogen storage materials with 6.8wt-% and 8.9wt-% capacity, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 readily release 2 equivalents of H2 at 80°C in the presence of a CoCl2 catalyst to furnish the corresponding trimerized borazine derivatives. Regeneration of 3 from its spent fuel material can be accomplished using a simple two-step process: activation with formic acid followed by reduction with LiAlH4. CSIRO 2014.

Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

Schubert, David,Neiner, Doinita,Bowden, Mark,Whittemore, Sean,Holladay, Jamie,Huang, Zhenguo,Autrey, Tom

, p. S196 - S199 (2015)

Abstract In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate.

Temperature effect on hydrogen generation by the reaction of γ-Al2O3-modified Al powder with distilled water

Deng, Zhen-Yan,Liu, Yu-Fu,Tanaka, Yoshihisa,Zhang, Hong-Wang,Ye, Jinhua,Kagawa, Yutaka

, p. 2975 - 2977 (2005)

The effect of temperature on the reaction of γ-Al2O 3-modified Al powders with distilled water was investigated. It was found that by increasing the temperature up to 40°C, the hydrogen generation speed can be enhanced one to two ord

Immobilizing cobalt phthalocyanine into a porous carbonized wood membrane as a self-supported heterogenous electrode for selective and stable CO2electroreduction in water

Min, Shixiong,Wang, Fang,Zhang, Haidong,Zhang, Zhengguo

, p. 15607 - 15611 (2020)

Immobilizing a cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecular electrocatalyst into a porous carbonized wood membrane (CoPc/CWM) results in a self-supported heterogenous electrode. The CoPc/CWM electrode with an ultralow CoPc loading of 8.2 × 10-6 mol cm-2 exhibits a faradaic efficiency (FE) over 90% for CO production at a wide potential range from-0.59 to-0.78 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and excellent long-term durability during a 12 h electrolysis reaction. This journal is

Clean Donor Oxidation Enhances the H2Evolution Activity of a Carbon Quantum Dot–Molecular Catalyst Photosystem

Martindale, Benjamin C. M.,Joliat, Evelyne,Bachmann, Cyril,Alberto, Roger,Reisner, Erwin

, p. 9402 - 9406 (2016)

Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are new-generation light absorbers for photocatalytic H2evolution in aqueous solution, but the performance of CQD-molecular catalyst systems is currently limited by the decomposition of the molecular component. Clean oxidation of the electron donor by donor recycling prevents the formation of destructive radical species and non-innocent oxidation products. This approach allowed a CQD-molecular nickel bis(diphosphine) photocatalyst system to reach a benchmark lifetime of more than 5 days and a record turnover number of 1094±61 molH2(molNi)?1for a defined synthetic molecular nickel catalyst in purely aqueous solution under AM1.5G solar irradiation.

Carbon quantum dot sensitized integrated Fe2O3@g-C3N4 core-shell nanoarray photoanode towards highly efficient water oxidation

Yi, Sha-Sha,Yan, Jun-Min,Jiang, Qing

, p. 9839 - 9845 (2018)

The construction of integrated heterojunction system photoelectrodes for solar energy conversion is indubitably an efficient alternative due to their effectiveness in charge separation and optimizing the ability for reduction and oxidation reactions. Here, an integrated photoanode constructed with carbon quantum dot (CQD) sensitized Ti:Fe2O3@GCNN (where GCNNs are graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets) core-shell nanoarrays is demonstrated, showing an excellent photocurrent density as high as 3.38 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (VRHE), 2-fold higher than that of pristine Ti:Fe2O3, which is superior over that of recently reported promising photoanodes. In this ternary system (Ti:Fe2O3@GCNN-CQDs), each component plays a specific role in the process towards superior PEC water oxidation: (i) the vectorial hole transfer of Ti:Fe2O3 → g-C3N4 → CQDs; (ii) the introduction of CQDs leads to high catalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition contributing a high rate activity for water oxidation via a two-step-two-electron water-splitting process; (iii) the favorable electron transport behavior of CQDs. This controlled structure design represents one scalable alternative toward the development of photoanodes for high-efficiency water splitting.

Polyacrylamide-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles for Selectively Enhancing Electroreduction of CO2 towards CO in Water

Han, Xiaofei,Liu, Lin,Yuan, Jiayi,Zhang, Xinsheng,Niu, Dongfang

, p. 721 - 729 (2021)

Conversion of the greenhouse gas CO2 to value-added products is an important challenge for sustainable energy research. Here, a durably nanohybrid composed of Ag nanoparticles and polyacrylamide was constructed for the selectively electroreduction of CO2 to CO. The nanohybrid exhibited an outstanding CO faradaic efficiency of 97.2±0.2 % at ?0.89 VRHE (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) with a desirable CO partial current density of ?22.0±2.3 mA cm?2 and maintained the CO faradaic efficiency above 95 % over a wide potential range (?0.79 to ?1.09 VRHE), showing excellent stability during a 48 h prolonged electrolysis. The origins of selective enhancement of CO2 reduction over the nanohybrid stemmed from the activation of CO2 via hydrogen bond and the low basicity of the amide. DFT calculations implied that the synergy of Ag nanoparticles and amide could better stabilize the key intermediate (*COOH) and effectively lower the overpotential of CO2 reduction. These results establish the synergistic effects of organic/inorganic hybrid as a complementary method for tuning selectivity in CO2-to-fuels catalysis.

Remedying Defects in Carbon Nitride to Improve both Photooxidation and H2 Generation Efficiencies

Wu, Wenting,Zhang, Jinqiang,Fan, Weiyu,Li, Zhongtao,Wang, Lizhuo,Li, Xiaoming,Wang, Yang,Wang, Ruiqin,Zheng, Jingtang,Wu, Mingbo,Zeng, Haibo

, p. 3365 - 3371 (2016)

The outstanding visible light response of carbon nitride has aroused intense expectations regarding its photocatalysis, but it is impeded by the inevitable defects. Here, we report on a facile melamine-based defect-remedying strategy and resultant carbon

A novel (μ-OAc)2 bridged unsymmetric coordinated binuclear Mn(II) macrocyclic complex with ligating pendant-arm

Pan, Zhi-Quan,Ni, Wen-Hao,Zhou, Hong,Hu, Xue-Lei,Huang, Qi-Mao,Kong, Juan

, p. 1363 - 1366 (2008)

A novel binuclear manganese Mn(II) macrocyclic complex with two pyridylmethyl pendant arms, [Mn2II(H2L)(μ-OAc)2](ClO4)2 · H2O, has been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. The crystal structure of the complex shows that two manganese ions locate in the same head of the macrocycle, leaving an uncoordinating cavity to catch protons through oxide of phenolate and the nearby imine groups in another head. The electrochemical study demonstrates that the complex gives two couples of redox peaks with E1/2 of 0.3775 V and 0.8409 V, respectively. The variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurement on the sample displays weak antiferromagnetic interaction between two manganese (II) with the J = -3.733(7) cm-1. This complex exhibits a moderate activity for catalyzing disproportionation of H2O2 to O2.

HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN EVOLUTION ON GRAPHITE FIBER-EPOXY MATRIX COMPOSITE ELECTRODES.

Lipka, S. M.,Cahen, G. L. Jr.,Stoner, G. E.,Scribner, L. L. Jr.,Gileadi, E.

, p. 753 - 760 (1988)

The electrochemical behavior of three graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composite materials containing various fiber orientations and fiber loadings was studied. Cyclic voltammetry was used to detect surface functionalities and to determine the electrochemically active surface areas of each material in 1 N H//2SO//4 and 30 weight percent (w/o) KOH. Hydrogen and oxygen evolution were studied on each electrode in 1 N H//2SO//4 and 30 w/o KOH, respectively. Tafel slopes for the hydrogen evolution reaction on the composite electrodes ranged from 0. 14 to 0. 18 V decade** minus **1 while exchange current densities ranged from 4 to 11 multiplied by 10** minus **7 A cm** minus **2. Tafel slopes for the oxygen evolution reaction on the composite materials were high, ranging from 0. 25 to 0. 28 V decade** minus **1.

Non-solvated aluminum hydride. Crystallization from diethyl ether-benzene solutions

Bulychev,Verbetskii,Sizov,Zvukova,Genchel,Fokin

, p. 1305 - 1312 (2007)

Crystallization of non-solvated aluminum hydride from a diethyl ether-benzene mixed solvent was studied. The desolvation of AlH 3?(Et2O)x etherate in solution and the crystallization of α-AlH3 during polythermal heating of the solution occur only in the presence of >10 wt.% LiAlH4. The process is multistage, and the crystallization begins with the formation of the AlH3?0.25Et2O solvate, which recrystallizes in the solid phase into γ-AlH3 and then α-AlH3. Four crystalline modifications of aluminum hydride were characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy.

Photocatalytic Carbon Dioxide Reduction at p-Type Copper(I) Iodide

Baran, Tomasz,Wojty?a, Szymon,Dibenedetto, Angela,Aresta, Michele,Macyk, Wojciech

, p. 2933 - 2938 (2016)

A p-type semiconductor, CuI, has been synthesized, characterized, and tested as a photocatalyst for CO2 reduction under UV/Vis irradiation in presence of isopropanol as a hole scavenger. Formation of CO, CH4, and/or HCOOH was observed. The photocatalytic activity of CuI was attributed to the very low potential of the conduction band edge (i.e., ?2.28 V vs. NHE). Photocurrents generated by the studied material confirm a high efficiency of the photoinduced interfacial electrontransfer processes. Our studies show that p-type semiconductors may be effective photocatalysts for CO2 reduction, even better than extensively studied n-type titanium dioxide, owing to the low potential of the conduction band edge.

Reversible hydrogen storage in Ti-Zr-codoped NaAlH4 under realistic operation conditions

Schmidt, Thomas,R?ntzsch, Lars

, p. L38-L40 (2010)

Ti-Zr-codoped NaAlH4 exhibits improved hydrogen desorption and reabsorption properties compared with sole Ti- or Zr-doped alanate. This contribution aims on reversible hydrogen storage in such material under realistic operation conditions. Results on isothermal dehydrogenation-rehydrogenation cycles at 125 °C and desorption at 4 bar hydrogen back-pressure are presented, proving NaAlH4 to be a suitable hydrogen material in combination with proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

Pietsch, E.,Seuferling, F.

, p. 573 (1931)

CuZnCoOx multifunctional catalyst for in situ hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with ethanol as hydrogen carrier

Zhang, Zihao,Yao, Siyu,Wang, Changxue,Liu, Miaomiao,Zhang, Feng,Hu, Xiaobing,Chen, Hao,Gou, Xin,Chen, Kequan,Zhu, Yimei,Lu, Xiuyang,Ouyang, Pingkai,Fu, Jie

, p. 314 - 321 (2019)

Catalytic in situ hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) to 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) has received a great interest in recent years. However, the issue of the consumption of expensive hydrogen donors, such as secondary alcohols, limits its applica

Manganese complexes as models for manganese-containing pseudocatalase enzymes: Synthesis, structural and catalytic activity studies

Singh, Udai P.,Tyagi, Pooja,Upreti, Shailesh

, p. 3625 - 3632 (2007)

Manganese complexes of the type [TpMn(X)] and [TpMn(μ-N3)(μ-X)MnTp] (X = acetylacetonate, acac; picolinate, pic and Tp = TpPh,Me for acac, Tp = Tpipr2 for pic complexes) having TpPh,Me (hydrotris(3-phenyl,5-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate)/Tpipr2 (hydrotris(3,5-diisopropyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate) as a supporting ligand have been synthesized and structurally characterized. IR and X-ray structures suggest that complexes 7 and 9 are binuclear with azido and bidentate ligands (acac/pic) bridging, whereas complexes 6 and 8 are mononuclear with a 5-coordinated metal center. In complex 9 the picolinate is coordinated as tridentate in a η3-fashion, but in complex 7 acac behaves as bidentate, whereas azide is coordinated in a bridging bidentate μ-1,3-manner in both 7 and 9. Since the coordination geometry of the manganese ions in complex 9 is very similar to the active site structure of manganese-containing pseudocatalase, we have tested the catalytic activity of the same towards the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide. The catalytic results indicated that complex 9 has reasonably good catalase activity and may be suitable, structurally as well as functionally, as a model for the pseudocatalase enzyme.

Formation of a Highly Reactive Cobalt Nanocluster Crystal within a Highly Negatively Charged Porous Coordination Cage

Fang, Yu,Xiao, Zhifeng,Li, Jialuo,Lollar, Christina,Liu, Lujia,Lian, Xizhen,Yuan, Shuai,Banerjee, Sayan,Zhang, Peng,Zhou, Hong-Cai

, p. 5283 - 5287 (2018)

Earth-abundant first-row transition-metal nanoclusters (NCs) have been extensively investigated as catalysts. However, their catalytic activity is relatively low compared with noble metal NCs. Enhanced catalytic activity of cobalt NCs can be achieved by encapsulating Co NCs in soluble porous coordination cages (PCCs). Two cages, PCC-2a and 2b, possess almost identical cavity in shape and size, while PCC-2a has five times more net charges than PCC-2b. Co2+ cations were accumulated in PCC-2a and reduced to ultra-small Co NCs in situ, while for PCC-2b, only bulky Co particles were formed. As a result, Co NCs@PCC-2a accomplished the highest catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of ammonium borane among all the first-row transition-metals NCs. Based on these results, it is envisioned that confining in the charged porous coordination cage could be a novel route for the synthesis of ultra-small NCs with extraordinary properties.

A readily accessible ruthenium catalyst for the solvolytic dehydrogenation of amine-borane adducts

Munoz-Olasagasti, Martin,Telleria, Ainara,Perez-Miqueo, Jorge,Garralda, Maria A.,Freixa, Zoraida

, p. 11404 - 11409 (2014)

The use of the readily available complex [Ru(p-Cym)(bipy)Cl]Cl as an efficient and robust precatalyst for homogeneously catalysed solvolysis of amine-borane adducts to liberate the hydrogen content of the borane almost quantitatively is being presented. The reactions can be carried out in tap water, and in aqueous mixtures with non-deoxygenated solvents. The system is also efficient for the dehydrocoupling of dimethylamine-borane under solvent-free conditions. This journal is the Partner Organisations 2014.

Photochemical hydrogen evolution catalyzed by trimetallic [Re-Fe] complexes

Jiang, Weina,Liu, Jianhui,Li, Cheng

, p. 81 - 85 (2012)

In order to conduct photoactive catalysts for hydrogen production, a novel trimetallic [Re-Fe] complex 1, consisting of the phenanthroline rhenium photosensitizer and the [2Fe2S] complex (connected by the axial coordination of a pyridyl group), was prepared and spectroscopically characterized. The apparent fluorescence quenching of the complex 1 was observed in comparison with the reference complex 1b, suggesting the possibility for an electron transfer from the excited state of the rhenium moiety to the [2Fe2S] moiety. Visible light-driven H2 generation was achieved by using triethylamine (sacrificial electron donor) in the presence of the complex 1 (catalyst) in CH3CN/H2O, with a turnover number reaching to 1.5. This is by far as we know the highest for the [Re-Fe] photocatalysts. In contrast to the molecular device, the multicomponent catalyst of complexes 1b and 1c, no H2 was detected by GC analysis in the same experimental condition. The plausible mechanism for the photochemical H2-evolution with this molecular device is discussed.

Direct Coupling of Thermo- and Photocatalysis for Conversion of CO2–H2O into Fuels

Zhang, Li,Kong, Guoguo,Meng, Yaping,Tian, Jinshu,Zhang, Lijie,Wan, Shaolong,Lin, Jingdong,Wang, Yong

, p. 4709 - 4714 (2017)

Photocatalytic CO2 reduction into renewable hydrocarbon solar fuels is considered as a promising strategy to simultaneously address global energy and environmental issues. This study focused on the direct coupling of photocatalytic water splitting and thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO2 in the conversion of CO2–H2O into fuels. Specifically, it was found that direct coupling of thermo- and photocatalysis over Au?Ru/TiO2 leads to activity 15 times higher (T=358 K; ca. 99 % CH4 selectivity) in the conversion of CO2–H2O into fuels than that of photocatalytic water splitting. This is ascribed to the promoting effect of thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO2 by hydrogen atoms generated in situ by photocatalytic water splitting.

Surface stoichiometry manipulation enhances solar hydrogen evolution of CdSe quantum dots

Huang, Mao-Yong,Li, Xu-Bing,Gao, Yu-Ji,Li, Jian,Wu, Hao-Lin,Zhang, Li-Ping,Tung, Chen-Ho,Wu, Li-Zhu

, p. 6015 - 6021 (2018)

Surface stoichiometry is a sensitive parameter affecting the decay dynamics of photogenerated hole-electron pairs of QDs. However, the effect of this manipulation on artificial photocatalytic H2 evolution is unclear. Here, we report that surface stoichiometry manipulation is a facile and feasible approach for enhancing H2 photogeneration of QDs. In the absence of an external cocatalyst, a decrease in the surface Se ratio of CdSe QDs from ~16.7% to ~4.9% gives a more than 10-fold increase in solar H2 evolution. Taking Ni(ii) as an external cocatalyst, CdSe QDs with a surface Se ratio of ~4.9% can produce ~1600 ± 151 μmol H2 gas during 27 h of visible-light irradiation, giving a total turnover number of (1.24 ± 0.12) × 105 on CdSe QDs and an apparent quantum yield of 10.1%, which is about 8 times that of CdSe QDs with a surface Se ratio of ~16.7% under the same conditions. Mechanistic insights obtained by a combination of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques indicate that surface stoichiometry exerts a significant influence on the exciton kinetics of CdSe QDs: a higher ratio of surface Se would increase the possibility of exciton recombination through hole trapping, thus depressing the performance of solar H2 evolution.

Oxygen-vacancy generation in MgFe2O4 by high temperature calcination and its improved photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction

Chen, Haowen,Fu, Liming,Wang, Kang,Wang, Xitao

, (2021/09/28)

MgFe2O4 spinel with abundant oxygen vacancy was synthesized by a simple precipitation method, and tested in photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with water vapor as reductant. A series of characterization including XRD, XPS, EPR, PL spectrum, UV–vis DRS and TPD-CO2 were performed to investigate the influence of calcination temperature on morphology, optical and electronic properties of MgFe2O4 spinel. The results demonstrated that the oxygen vacancy concentration increases first and then decreases with the increase of calcination temperature. By introducing oxygen vacancies, the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs was significantly suppressed, visible light absorption and chemisorption capacity of CO2 were dramatically boosted. Mg-Fe-750 with the richest oxygen vacancies exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity, for which the production rate of CO and H2 was 24.4 and 34.3 μmol/gcat/h, respectively.

1T-2H MoSe2 modified MAPbI3 for effective photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

Cai, Yifei,Chen, Jinxi,Lou, Yongbing,Zhang, Tiantian

, (2021/10/25)

Organic-inorganic perovskites such as iodine methylamine lead (MAPbI3) shows superb photocatalytic prospect in the field of solar energy driven photocatalysis. However, its catalytic performance is insufficient due to serious charge recombination. In this article, 1T-2H MoSe2/MAPbI3 composites were obtained by simple electrostatic adsorption method. The results of photocatalytic hydrogen production showed that 10 wt% 1T-2H MoSe2/MAPbI3 performed the best hydrogen evolution rate of 552.93 μmol·h?1·g?1, which was 23 times than that of pure MAPbI3 (23.13 μmol·h?1·g?1). The long-term cyclic stability test also indicated that 1T-2H MoSe2/MAPbI3 composites have good stability. The excellent hydrogen evolution rate activity is thoroughly investigated by optical/optoelectrochemical measurements, showing that 1T-2H MoSe2 as a co-catalyst can effectively transfer electrons and promote the separation of photogenerated charge. This study provided a reference for further exploration of MAPbI3-based catalysts with excellent catalytic activity.

Copper phthalocyanine@graphene oxide as a cocatalyst of TiO2 in hydrogen generation

Keshipour, Sajjad,Mohammad-Alizadeh, Shima,Razeghi, Mohammad Hossein

, (2021/10/21)

Hydrogen is among the most commonly discussed types of novel energies since it generates high energy in a green manner. Thus, hydrogen production under visible light has been studied with a novel hybrid catalyst including copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) supported on graphene oxide (GO) and TiO2 in a pathway involving formic acid degradation. The homogenous distribution of CuPc on GO has been obtained through synthesis of CuPc in the presence of GO. CuPc@GO carried out the decomposition reaction of formic acid in the presence of TiO2 to afford H2 with TOF of up to 79 h?1 at room temperature. The catalyst indicated 103% and 39% enhancements in H2 generation compared to CuPc/TiO2 and CuPc@GO, respectively.

Synthesis, evaluation, and kinetic assessment of Co-based catalyst for enhanced methane decomposition reaction for hydrogen production

Al Mesfer, Mohammed K.,Danish, Mohd,Shah, Mumtaj

, p. 90 - 103 (2021/10/19)

In this work, the development of 10, 30, and 50?wt.% Co/TiO2–Al2O3 catalysts for catalytic methane decomposition reaction has been reported to produce pure hydrogen. The synthesis of Co particles on the surface of mesoporo

Efficient splitting of alcohols into hydrogen and C–C coupled products over ultrathin Ni-doped ZnIn2S4 nanosheet photocatalyst

Li, Jing-Yu,Qi, Ming-Yu,Xu, Yi-Jun

, p. 1084 - 1091 (2022/03/15)

Integrating selective organic synthesis with hydrogen (H2) evolution in one photocatalytic redox reaction system sheds light on the underlying approach for concurrent employment of photogenerated electrons and holes towards efficient production of solar fuels and chemicals. In this work, a facile one-pot oil bath method has been proposed to fabricate a noble metal-free ultrathin Ni-doped ZnIn2S4 (ZIS/Ni) composite nanosheet for effective solar-driven selective dehydrocoupling of benzyl alcohol into value-added C–C coupled hydrobenzoin and H2 fuel, which exhibits higher performance than pure ZIS nanosheet. The remarkably improved photoredox activity of ZIS/Ni is mainly attributed to the optimized electron structure featuring narrower band gap and suitable energy band position, which facilitates the ability of light harvesting and photoexcited charge carrier separation and transfer. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that it is feasible to employ ZIS/Ni for various aromatic alcohols dehydrocoupling to the corresponding C–C coupled products. It is expected that this work can stimulate further interest on the establishment of innovative photocatalytic redox platform coupling clean solar fuels synthesis and selective organic conversion in a sustainable manner.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With oxygen; at 850 ℃; for 24h; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Time; Catalytic behavior; Flow reactor;
75%
57%
With oxygen; at 850 ℃; for 24h; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Flow reactor;
47%
62%
With oxygen; at 850 ℃; for 24h; under 760.051 Torr; Flow reactor;
57%
57%
With oxygen; ytterbium(III) oxide; nickel; at 700 ℃; Product distribution; variation of conditions, also with NiO/Yb2O3;
With oxygen; at 850 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; Mg0.97Ni0.03O; at 830 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; Mg0.95Ni0.03ORh0.02; at 810 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; nickel aluminate; at 725 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; LaNi0.5O3Zr0.5; at 875 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; at 300 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; at 360 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; at 820 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; at 720 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; at 650 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; at 700 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; at 795 ℃; under 1020.1 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; Rh/Sm; at 300 ℃; for 45.5h; under 3090.31 - 5415.54 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With water;
With water; alumina coating-platinum/rhodium; at 450 - 869 ℃; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; ATR catalyst; at 421.101 - 476.657 ℃; under 3863.02 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Gas phase;
With oxygen; Product distribution / selectivity;
With oxygen; Fe0.7LaNi0.25O3Rh0.05; at 500 - 867 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; Ce0.2Fe0.7La0.8Ni0.25O3Rh0.05; at 500 - 890 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; Fe0.7LaNi0.3O3; at 500 - 872 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With oxygen; Fe0.95LaO3Rh0.05; at 500 - 827 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
gallium(III) oxide; In neat (no solvent); Irradiation (UV/VIS); 220-300 nm, 314 K, 3 h; C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C4H10 and traces of C3H6 were also formed;
0%
gallium(III) oxide; In neat (no solvent); Irradiation (UV/VIS); 220-300 nm, 473 K, 3 h; C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C4H10 and C3H6 were also formed;
0%
With air; In gas; byproducts: CO2, H2O; mixt. of CH4, air passed through the membrane of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3-δ), Co3O4 and then through catalyst - Ni/γ-Al3O3;
With air; copper(II) oxide; at atm. pressure in fixed-bed U-shaped cylindrical quartz reactor at temps. from 350 to 800°C;
With air; nickel(II) oxide; at atm. pressure in fixed-bed U-shaped cylindrical quartz reactor at temps. from 350 to 800°C;
With air; (NiO)2(UO3); at atm. pressure in fixed-bed U-shaped cylindrical quartz reactor at temps. from 350 to 800°C;
With air; (CuO)2(ThO2); at atm. pressure in fixed-bed U-shaped cylindrical quartz reactor at temps. from 350 to 800°C;
With air; (NiO)2(ThO2); at atm. pressure in fixed-bed U-shaped cylindrical quartz reactor at temps. from 350 to 800°C;
With air; catalyst: Pt/Al2O3; at atm. pressure in fixed-bed U-shaped cylindrical quartz reactor at temps. from 350 to 800°C;
With oxygen; at 700 ℃; under 3 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Inert atmosphere;
With Cu0.7(Al2O3)0.3; water;
With mesoporous silica support was impregnated with [μ-(acetato-kO:kO')]bis(acetato-kO)-tetrakis{μ3-[di(2-pyridinyl-kN)methanediolato-kO:kO:kO]}tetra-nickel(II) perchlorate hydrate; at 600 ℃; Reagent/catalyst;
With oxygen; at 800 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst; Catalytic behavior; Inert atmosphere; Flow reactor; Gas phase;
With sodium zirconate; carbon dioxide; at 200 - 900 ℃; Temperature; Inert atmosphere;
With carbon dioxide; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); at 650 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Inert atmosphere;
With oxygen; at 750 ℃; Temperature;
With carbon dioxide; at 850 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Kinetics; Flow reactor;
With carbon dioxide; UV-irradiation;
Conditions
Conditions Yield
In dimethoxyethane (DME); at 20 ℃; for 1h;
70%
carbon dioxide
124-38-9,18923-20-1

carbon dioxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With phosphoric acid; water; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; glycogen phosphorylase; thiamine pyrophosphate; phosphoglucomutase; phosphoglucose isomerase; triose-phosphate isomerase; 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase; Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase I; ribose 5-phosphate isomerase; ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase; transaldolase; transketolase; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; magnesium chloride; manganese(ll) chloride; aldolase; at 30 ℃; Enzyme kinetics; Enzymatic reaction; Aqueous HEPES buffer;
Conditions
Conditions Yield
With oxygen; Al0.4Co1.6La0.6O5.3Sr1.4; at 700 ℃; for 0.00833333 - 0.0833333h; Product distribution / selectivity;
With water; at 600 ℃; for 5h; Reagent/catalyst;
With water; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere;
carbon dioxide
124-38-9,18923-20-1

carbon dioxide

oxygen
80937-33-3

oxygen

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 850 - 950 ℃; under 18389.3 Torr;
at 700 - 1050 ℃; under 14711.4 - 18389.3 Torr;
nickel; heterogeneous oxidn. of methane with oxygene and with CO2, 520-535 °C, 60 % CH4, 35 % O2, 5 % CO2;
With lanthanum nickelate; at 600 - 800 ℃; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Inert atmosphere;
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9,18923-20-1

carbon dioxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With water; at 20 ℃; pH=4.5; Quantum yield; UV-irradiation; Inert atmosphere;
100%
With water; at 350 ℃; Temperature; Catalytic behavior; Flow reactor;
14%
With catalyst: TiO2/2percent-wt Pt; In neat (no solvent); byproducts: formaldehyde; Irradiation (UV/VIS); photolysis (500 W Xe-lamp 350 and 400 nm, 25°C); IR spectroscopy, gas chromy.;
In water; pH=7.8; Photolelectrolysis;
With catalyst: Pt/CdS; In water; Irradiation (UV/VIS); pH 13.1, 20 h; Kinetics;
With cerium(IV) oxide; water; at 350 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Catalytic behavior;
With titanium oxide nitride; water; at 20 ℃; pH=7; Irradiation;
With water; at 300 ℃; Reagent/catalyst;
With [RhCl2(p-cymene)]2; candida boidinii; corynebacterium glutamicum; oxygen; In aq. phosphate buffer; at 25 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Enzymatic reaction;
at 99.84 ℃; Temperature; Thermodynamic data; Electrochemical reaction; Gas phase;
With [Ir(H)2(Cl)(HN{CH2CH2P(iPr)2}2)]; In water; at 94 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Catalytic behavior; Inert atmosphere;
With water; at 230 ℃; for 24h; under 750.075 Torr;
With water; potassium hydroxide; In Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether; at 92.5 ℃; for 3h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Catalytic behavior; Inert atmosphere;
With platinum doped titanium oxide; In water; at 100 ℃; for 4h; Inert atmosphere; UV-irradiation; Flow reactor;
With water; oxygen; at 400 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Flow reactor;
ethane
74-84-0

ethane

propane
74-98-6

propane

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With water; nickel based catalysts and noble metals; at 200 - 1050 ℃;
methane; ethane; propane; With water; at 480 - 750 ℃; under 27227.7 - 32853.3 Torr; Industry scale;
With oxygen; at 702 - 1000 ℃; under 26327.6 - 27227.7 Torr; Industry scale;
water
7732-18-5

water

carbon dioxide
124-38-9,18923-20-1

carbon dioxide

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 800 ℃; under 21281.4 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Industry scale;
58%
3%
21%
3percent wt. Ni and 0.5percent wt. Rh on silicon nitride carrier; Product distribution / selectivity; Heating; Industry scale;
16.75%
2.96%
29.41%
at 800 - 850 ℃; under 20673.4 - 21281.4 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Industry scale;
28%
5%
3%
With nitrogen; In gas; byproducts: C2H6, C2H4, C2H2; CH4 and H2O reacted in ferroelectric packed-bed reactor in N2 stream; Kinetics;
25.7%
6.9%
9.9%
With nitrogen; In gas; byproducts: C2H6, C2H4, C2H2; CH4 and H2O reacted in silent discharge plasma reactor in N2 stream; Kinetics;
0.7%
1.8%
1.3%
rhodium on honeycomb monolith; at 359 - 414 ℃; under 27377.7 - 51755.2 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Pressure swing reformer; Continous process;
With catalyst: Ni supported on zirconia; In gaseous matrix; 1) 5% CH4 in He/Ar introduced onto the catalyst at 648-673 K, 2) a portion of water introduced onto the catalyst; adsorbed C and/or hydrocarbonaceous species intermediately formed; average CH4 conversion ca. 75%; temp. dependence studied; GC anal.;
<0.2
potassium carbonate; In water; High Pressure; reaction in autoclave at 650°C and 60 MPa in presence of 1.34 wt%of K2CO3;
yttria-stabilized zirconia; In neat (no solvent); steam reforming of methane, 850-1100 °C, alumina reactor;
nickel; potassium hydroxide; In potassium hydroxide; High Pressure; reaction in autoclave at 650°C and 33 MPa in presence of suspn. of Raney-Ni in aq. KOH;
nickel; In water; High Pressure; reaction in autoclave at 650°C and 38 or 53 MPa in presence of suspn. of Raney-Ni in water;
sodium hydroxide; In sodium hydroxide; High Pressure; reaction in autoclave at 650°C and 33MPa in 0.2M NaOH;
potassium hydroxide; In potassium hydroxide; High Pressure; reaction in autoclave at 650°C and 64 MPa or at 570°C and 68 MPa in presence of 1.1 wt% of KOH;
Cr0.05Fe0.95O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Ni0.05Fe0.95O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Ni0.05V0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Rh0.05Cr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Pd0.05Cr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Pt0.05Cr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Ni0.05Ti0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Ni0.05Zr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Ni0.05Al0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Co0.05Cr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Cu0.05Cr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Ir0.05Cr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
Ni0.05Cr0.05Fe0.90O(x); In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
iron oxide; In neat (no solvent); CH4 passed over Fe oxide at 1023 K until CO or CO2 not observed, Ar introduced to purge out CH4, H2O vapor (dild. with Ar) passed over reduced iron oxide at 473 K, temp. increased to 823 K (4 K/min) and oxided until formation of H2 could be not observed; analyzed by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
With catalyst: Ni/α-Al2O3; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, H2O, and N2 (ratio 2:1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/α-Al2O3 catalyst dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
With catalyst: Ni/γ-Al2O3; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, H2O, and N2 (ratio 2:1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
With catalyst: Ni/Mg-Al oxide; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, H2O, and N2 (ratio 2:1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/Mg-Al oxide catalysts (different atomic ratios) dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
With catalyst: Ni/MgO; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, H2O, and N2 (ratio 2:1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/MgO catalyst dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
In water; High Pressure; reaction in autoclave at 650°C and 56 MPa;
In water; byproducts: H2O2, CH2O, C2H4; Sonication; Ar/CH4 atmosphere; temp. not higher than 20°C, H2O bubbled with the gas for 20 min before sonication; further by-product: C2H6; detected by GC (gases) or photometrically (H2O2);
With La0.75Sr0.25FeO3; at 750 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Flow reactor;
methane; water; With La1.5Sr1.5Mn1.5Ni0.5O7; at 120 - 150 ℃; Flow reactor;
at 300 ℃; for 2h; Kinetics;
With Ni coateed by Ni-Re; at 599.84 - 699.84 ℃; for 40h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Kinetics; Catalytic behavior;
With 0.5% Ag-loaded SrTiO3 nanocomposite; In neat (no solvent); at 25 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; UV-irradiation;
oxygen
80937-33-3

oxygen

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.13Zr0.87O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 923 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
61.1%
66%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.03Zr0.97O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 923 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
59.7%
62.8%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)Ce0.25Zr0.75O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 923 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
56.7%
61.6%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.07Zr0.93O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 923 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
58.3%
59.6%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/ZrO2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 923 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
51.3%
57.3%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)Ce0.25Zr0.75O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 823 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
39.2%
51%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.13Zr0.87O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 823 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
38%
49.9%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.01Zr0.99O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 923 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
44.1%
45.2%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.03Zr0.97O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 823 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
30.8%
39.2%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.07Zr0.93O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 823 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
30.1%
39%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/ZrO2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 923 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
37.9%
35.4%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/Ce0.01Zr0.99O2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 823 K,); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
28%
34.6%
With silicon modified nickel metallic nanoparticles SC-450; at 450 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Catalytic behavior;
21%
33%
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/ZrO2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 823 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
13%
17%
1.23percent Pt on alumina (ignitation catalyst) + 6percent Rh and 5percent Sm on alumina (real catalyst); at 370 - 422 ℃; Industry scale;
0.27percent Pt/16.4percent CeO2 on alumina (ignitation catalyst) + 6percent Rh and 5percent Sm on alumina (real catalyst); at 304 - 312 ℃; Industry scale;
1percent Ni/Ca-modified-Al2O3; at 700 ℃; Gas phase;
platinum; In gas; byproducts: CO2; (He) at 400-900 K using molecular beams under ultrahith vacuum; on Pt(110)-(1x2); detn. by quadrupole mass spectrometer; Kinetics;
With catalyst: Ni/α-Al2O3; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, and N2 (ratio 1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/α-Al2O3 catalyst dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
With catalyst: Ni/γ-Al2O3; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, and N2 (ratio 1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
With catalyst: Ni/Mg-Al oxide; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, and N2 (ratio 1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/Al-Mg oxide catalysts (different atomic ratios) dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
With catalyst: Ni/MgO; In gas; reaction in fixed-bed flow reactor with mixed gas flow of CH4, O2, and N2 (ratio 1:2:1) at 1073 K using supported Ni/MgO catalyst dild. by quartz beads; detn. by TCD-gas chromy.;
With catalyst: Ru/Ca(2+)-doped TiO2; In gas; CH4:O2 = 6:3 vol% in 91 vol% N2 as carrier, at temp. 973-1073 K in continuous flow reactor; detd. by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
With catalyst: Ru/TiO2; In gas; CH4:O2 = 6:3 vol% in 91 vol% N2 as carrier, at temp. 973-1073 K in continuous flow reactor; detd. by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
With catalyst: Ru/W(6+)-doped TiO2; In gas; CH4:O2 = 6:3 vol% in 91 vol% N2 as carrier, at temp. 973-1073 K in continuous flow reactor; detd. by gas chromy.; Kinetics;
In neat (no solvent); supported Ni catalyst used, supports: oxidized diamond, activated carbon, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, MgO, or La2O3, synthesis gas formation in the temperature ranges of 673 to 1073 K;
Ru-component on 10percentMnO2/Al2O3; heated in H2; at 700 ℃; for 1h; Conversion of starting material; Gas phase;
Ru-component on Al2O3; heated in H2; at 700 ℃; for 1h; Conversion of starting material; Gas phase;
With catalyst: Pt/Gd0.3Ce0.35Zr0.35O(x)/α-Al2O3; In neat (no solvent); byproducts: carbon dioxide; feeding pulses of O2/Ar and CH4/Ar mixt/ (1:1) at 700°C in the presence of Pt/Gd0.3Ce0.35Zr0.35O(x)/.alpha-Al2O3; analysis by mass spectrometer; Kinetics;
With catalyst: Pt/Pr0.3Ce0.35Zr0.35O(x)/α-Al2O3; In neat (no solvent); byproducts: carbon dioxide; feeding pulses of O2/Ar and CH4/Ar mixt/ (1:1) at 700°C in the presence of Pt/Pr0.3Ce0.35Zr0.35O(x)/.alpha-Al2O3; analysis by mass spectrometer; Kinetics;
With catalyst: Ni/Al2O3; In gas; CH4 and O2 reacted at 800-950°C with Ni/Al2O3 catalyst in He/Ne flow; detd. by gas chromy.;
With catalyst:NiO(12.4)/ZrO2; In neat (no solvent, gas phase); mixt. of 10% CH4, 5% O2, and 85% N2 allowed to flow at SV 120,000 L/(kg h) (reactor - quartz tube, 823 K); detd. by chromy.; Kinetics;
0.8%
0.8%
With Pt; In neat (no solvent); CH adlayer obtained by dosing of He seeded CH4 beam onto Pt for 1 min at370 K surface temp.; O2 beam impinged onto the crystal at 450-550 K sur face temp.; gaseous CO and H2 obtained;
nickel; heterogeneous oxidn. of methane with oxygene, above 800 °C, 0.30-5.75 atm, 65 % CH4 and 35 % O2;
With catalyst: Ni-15percentU/Al2O3; In neat (no solvent); 550-800 °C, CH4:O2:Ar=2:1:7 (v/v);
With catalyst: Ni-30percentU/Al2O3; In neat (no solvent); 550-800 °C, CH4:O2:Ar=2:1:7 (v/v);
With catalyst: Ni-5percentU/Al2O3; In neat (no solvent); 550-800 °C, CH4:O2:Ar=2:1:7 (v/v);
With catalyst: Ni/Al2O3; In neat (no solvent); 550-800 °C, CH4:O2:Ar=2:1:7 (v/v);
at 1050 ℃; under 18601.9 Torr; Gas phase;
With NdCaNiO(n); at 954 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Catalytic behavior;
96 %Chromat.
89 %Chromat.
With cobalt-nickel-MCM-41; at 750 ℃; for 12h; Reagent/catalyst;
water
7732-18-5

water

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
activated clay; at 550 - 650 ℃;

Global suppliers and manufacturers

Global( 34) Suppliers
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  • EAST CHEMSOURCES LIMITED
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-532-81906761
  • Emails:josen@eastchem-cn.com
  • Main Products:97
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Chemwill Asia Co., Ltd.
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:021-51086038
  • Emails:sales@chemwill.com
  • Main Products:56
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Hangzhou Dingyan Chem Co., Ltd
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-571-86465881,86-571-87157530,86-571-88025800
  • Emails:sales@dingyanchem.com
  • Main Products:95
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Antimex Chemical Limied
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:0086-21-50563169
  • Emails:anthony@antimex.com
  • Main Products:163
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Skyrun Industrial Co.,Ltd
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:0086-576-84610586
  • Emails:sales@chinaskyrun.com
  • Main Products:18
  • Country:China (Mainland)
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