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Cas Database

497-19-8

497-19-8

Identification

  • Product Name:Sodium carbonate

  • CAS Number: 497-19-8

  • EINECS:207-838-8

  • Molecular Weight:105.989

  • Molecular Formula: Na2CO3

  • HS Code:28362000

  • Mol File:497-19-8.mol

Synonyms:Soda Ash;Carbonic acid, disodium salt;Bisodium carbonate;Calcined soda;Carbonic acid sodium salt;Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:2);Carbonic acid, disodium salt;Crystol carbonate;Disodium carbonate (Na2CO3);Soda, calcined;Sodium carbonate (2:1);Sodium carbonate, anhydrous;

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Safety information and MSDS

  • Pictogram(s):HarmfulXn, IrritantXi

  • Hazard Codes:Xn,Xi

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  • Product Description:SODIUMCARBONATE,99.99%
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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 81 Articles be found

Deshpande, D. A.,Ghormare, K. R.,Jawadekar, V. L.,Deshpande, N. D.

, p. 295 - 302 (1983)

Dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate with indirect microwave heating

Seyrankaya, Abdullah,Ozalp, Bari?

, p. 31 - 36 (2006)

In this study, dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3·H2O) (SCM) in microwave (MW) field with silicon carbide (SiC) as an indirect heating medium was investigated. SCM samples containing up to 3% free moisture were placed in the microwave oven. The heating experiments showed that SCM is a poor microwave energy absorber for up to 6 min of irradiation at an 800 W of microwave power. The heat for SCM calcination is provided by SiC which absorbs microwave. The monohydrate is then converted to anhydrous sodium carbonate on the SiC plate by calcining, i.e. by removing the crystal water through heating of the monohydrate temperatures of over 120 °C. The calcination results in a solid phase recrystallization of the monohydrate into anhydrate. In the microwave irradiation process, dehydration of SCM in terms of indirect heating can be accelerated by increasing the microwave field power.

Thermal decomposition of NaHCO3 powders and single crystals. A study by DSC and optical microscopy

Guarini, G. G. T.,Dei, L.,Sarti, G.

, p. 31 - 44 (1995)

The thermal decomposition of four commercial powders and of differently stored single crystals of sodium hydrogen carbonate is studied by power compensation DSC and by optical and FT-IR microscopy. Independently of manufacturer, specified purity and price, the thermal curves of all the commercial powders show a more or less pronounced low temperature peak preceding the one due to the main decomposition. Such small peak is not observed when samples of laboratory recrystallized material are used. However the thermal behaviour of the latter preparation differs remarkably depending on storage conditions: the material kept in closed glass containers decomposes at temperatures higher than those of the material stored in a desiccator in the presence of concentrated H2SO4. The observation by optical microscopy of the behaviour of the surfaces of single crystals coming from different storage conditions when the temperature is raised in a Kofler heater helps the interpretation of the data collected. The mechanism of the decomposition is discussed and the relevant kinetic parameters reported.

Specificity of decomposition of solids in non-isothermal conditions

Vlase,Vlase,Doca,Doca

, p. 597 - 604 (2003)

The thermal stability of the food additives Na metabisulphite, Na and K acetates, glutamic and citric acids, respective of the pharmaceuticals nifedipine and acetyl salicylic acid was studied by means of the non-isothermal kinetic (Friedman differential m

Waldbauer, L.,McCann, D. C.,Tuleen, L. F.

, p. 336 - 337 (1934)

A method of assessing solid state reactivity illustrated by thermal decomposition experiments on sodium bicarbonate

Heda, Pavan K.,Dollimore, David,Alexander, Kenneth S.,Chen, Dun,Law, Emmeline,Bicknell, Paul

, p. 255 - 272 (1995)

The thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was studied under different atmospheres (dry nitrogen, air, and carbon dioxide), with various heating rates in order to characterize the substance. Various non-isothermal methods of kinetic analysis were employed in estimating the Arrhenius kinetic parameters, the activation energy and the frequency factor. All show that the most probable reaction mechanism under dry nitrogen and air is the first-order deceleratory mechanism, whereas under carbon dioxide it is the Avrami-Erofeev equation, with n = 1.5. Thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and DTG) were employed for comparing the solid state reactivity of different samples of sodium bicarbonate. The reaction parameters, the extent of the reaction (α) and the reaction temperature were used in comparing the reactivities of various samples of sodium bicarbonate differing in particle sizeand surface area produced by grinding the substance in a ball mill. A m ethod was utilized, termed here the α(sample)-α(reference) (α(s)-α(r)) method, by which the solid state reactivity of these samples could be compared with that of a reference. The terms α(s), α(r) refer to the extent of reaction (here the extent of decomposition) at the same temperature for the sample (s) and reference (r).

Interaction of graphite with hydroxide-salt melts

Zarubitskii,Dmitruk,Zakharchenko

, p. 525 - 528 (2006)

The mechanism and kinetics of graphite dissolution in melts based on sodium hydroxide were studied. The effect of various salt additives on the intensity of the occurring reactions is considered. A method recommended for removal of graphite in the form of remainders of molds and mold cores from titanium casts is described. Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.

Microwave-assisted synthesis, crystal structures and thermal behaviour of Na5Y(CO3)4 and Na5Yb(CO3)4·2H2O

Awaleh,Ben Ali,Maisonneuve,Leblanc, Marc

, p. 114 - 120 (2003)

The microwave-assisted synthesis, crystal structure and thermal behavior of two carbonates were discussed. The study was performed using single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. It was found that in both structures Na(1)+ and Yb3+

Smith, G. F.,Croad, F.

, p. 141 - 142 (1937)

-

Desjobert, Andre,Petek, Fahrettin

, p. 19 - 23 (1956)

Experiments have shown that it is not advisable to use the crude product of the calcination of sodium bicarbonate as a standardization substance in acidimetry.

Kinetic studies on the thermal decomposition of aluminium doped sodium oxalate under isothermal conditions

Jose John,Muraleedharan,Kannan,Abdul Mujeeb,Ganga Devi

, p. 64 - 70 (2012)

The kinetics of thermal decomposition of sodium oxalate (Na 2C2O4) has been studied as a function of concentration of dopant, aluminium, at five different temperatures in the range 783-803 K under isothermal conditions by thermogravimetry (TG). The TG data were subjected to both model fitting and model free kinetic methods of analysis. The model fitting analysis of the TG data shows that no single kinetic model describes the whole α versus t curve with a single rate constant throughout the decomposition reaction. Separate kinetic analysis shows that Prout-Tompkins model best describes the acceleratory stage of the decomposition while the decay region is best fitted with the contracting cylinder model. Activation energy values were evaluated by model fitting and model free kinetic methods for both stages of decomposition. As proposed earlier the results favours a diffusion controlled mechanism for the isothermal decomposition of sodium oxalate.

Krueger, A.

, p. 333 - 333 (1939)

Quantitative kinetic and structural analysis of geopolymers. Part 1. the activation of metakaolin with sodium hydroxide

Zhang, Zuhua,Wang, Hao,Provis, John L.,Bullen, Frank,Reid, Andrew,Zhu, Yingcan

, p. 23 - 33 (2012)

Isothermal conduction calorimetry (ICC) is used here to measure the kinetics of geopolymerisation of metakaolin by reaction with NaOH solution under a variety of conditions. Three exothermic peaks are observed in the calorimetric curve, and are assigned to the dissolution of metakaolin, the formation of geopolymer with disordered or locally ordered structure, and finally the reorganization and partial crystallization of this inorganic polymer gels. For the purpose of further quantifying the ICC data, the geopolymeric reaction products are assumed to have an analcime-like local structure, and their standard formation enthalpies are estimated from the available data for this structure. This assumption enables ICC to be used for the first time in a quantitative manner to determine the real reaction kinetics of geopolymerization. Increasing the NaOH concentration up to a molar overall Na/Al ratio of 1.1 is seen to enhance the reaction extent observed at 3 days, up to a maximum of around 40% in the high liquid/solid ratio systems studied here, and accelerates the crystallization process. However, further addition of NaOH does not give any additional reaction within this period, or any further acceleration. Raising the reaction temperature from 25 °C to 40°C increases the initial reaction rate but has little effect on the final reaction extent, particularly when Na/Al > 1.

Nagaishi, T.,Yoshimura, J.,Matsumoto, M.,Yoshinaga, S.

, p. 501 - 508 (1980)

Thermal Decomposition of Solid Sodium Bicarbonate

Ball, Matthew C.,Snelling, Christine M.,Strachan, Alec N.,Strachan, Rebecca M.

, p. 3709 - 3716 (1986)

The thermal decomposition of solid sodium bicarbonate has been studied in the temperature range 360-500 K over a range of partial pressures of carbon dioxide.The effect of water vapour has also been studied.Above 440 K the reaction follows contracting-cube kinetics with an activation energy of 32 kJ mol-1 and a frequency factor of 101 s-1.In this temperature range the presence of water or carbon dioxide has little effect on the kinetics.Below 390 K the reaction follows first-order kinetics.In nitrogen, the activation energy is ca. 64 kJ mol-1, the frequency factor is 105 s-1 and water vapour has little effect.High partial pressures of carbon dioxide increase the activation energy to ca. 130 kJ mol-1 and the frequency factor to 1013.5 s-1.The results of microscopic examination generally confirm the kinetics but show that at low temperatures in nitrogen and carbon dioxide the process are different in detail.

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Tananaeff, N. A.,Lasarkevitsch, N. A.

, p. 117 (1930)

-

Synthesis, spectroscopy, single crystal XRD and biological studies of multinuclear organotin dicarboxylates

Hussain, Shabbir,Ali, Saqib,Shahzadi, Saira,Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz,Shahid, Muhammad,Munawar, Khurram Shahzad,Abbas, Syed Mustansar

, p. 64 - 72 (2016)

Multinuclear organotin(IV) dicarboxylates of the general formula (Me3Sn)2L·H2O (1), (Ph3Sn)2L (2) and Me2SnL[Sn(Cl)2Me2]2 (3) were synthesized by refluxing disodium iminodiacetate hydrate (Na2L·H2O) with Me3SnCl/Ph3SnCl/Me2SnCl2 in methanol. The elemental analysis (C, H and N) data agreed well with the chemical compositions of the products. IR spectroscopy demonstrated a bridging coordination mode of the carboxylate group. 1H NMR spectroscopy suggested a penta-coordinated environment around the tin(IV) center in complexes 1 and 3. The title complex 3 represents one of the very few examples of organotin(IV) carboxylates showing simultaneously coordination with dimethyltin(IV) as well as dichlorodimethyltin(IV) moieties, by substitution and addition reactions, respectively. The 13C NMR spectroscopy demonstrated the carboxylate-metal linkages. EIMS and ESI spectra verified the molecular skeletons of the products 1-3. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the bimetallic nature of 2. A single crystal XRD study of 3 has shown a predominantly square pyramidal geometry with some trigonal bipyramidal characteristics around each metal center. The novel products exhibited antibacterial/antifungal potential and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also evaluated. In vitro hemolytic studies on human red blood cells indicated a slightly toxic nature of the synthesized complexes.

Solid state reaction between dichromates and oxalates

Suba,Udupa

, p. 1197 - 1203 (1989)

The thermal investigation of the reaction taking place between dichromates and oxalates in the solid state has been done taking two systems of potassium dichromate-potassium oxalate and sodium dichromate-sodium by oxalate. The techniques employed include thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The results indicate a stoichiometric reaction of dichromate and oxalate in 1:1 ratio to give the corresponding chromate as the sole product.

Fry, H. S.,Schulze, E. L.

, p. 1131 - 1138 (1928)

Overcoming Crystallinity Limitations of Aluminium Metal-Organic Frameworks by Oxalic Acid Modulated Synthesis

Canossa, Stefano,Gonzalez-Nelson, Adrian,Shupletsov, Leonid,Van der Veen, Monique A.,del Carmen Martin, Maria

, (2020)

A modulated synthesis approach based on the chelating properties of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) is presented as a robust and versatile method to achieve highly crystalline Al-based metal-organic frameworks. A comparative study on this method and the already established modulation by hydrofluoric acid was conducted using MIL-53 as test system. The superior performance of oxalic acid modulation in terms of crystallinity and absence of undesired impurities is explained by assessing the coordination modes of the two modulators and the structural features of the product. The validity of our approach was confirmed for a diverse set of Al-MOFs, namely X-MIL-53 (X=OH, CH3O, Br, NO2), CAU-10, MIL-69, and Al(OH)ndc (ndc=1,4-naphtalenedicarboxylate), highlighting the potential benefits of extending the use of this modulator to other coordination materials.

Easterbrook, W. C.

, p. 383 - 390 (1957)

Duval, C.

, (1956)

Tanaka, H.

, p. 521 - 526 (1987)

Carmody, W. R.

, p. 577 - 579 (1945)

PbTe nanostructures: Microwave-assisted synthesis by using lead Schiff-base precursor, characterization and formation mechanism

Ahmadian-Fard-Fini, Shahla,Salavati-Niasari, Masoud,Monfared, Azam,Mohandes, Fatemeh

, p. 778 - 788 (2013)

Pure cubic phase lead telluride (PbTe) nanostructures have been produced by using a Schiff-base complex as a precursor in the presence of microwave irradiation. The Schiff base used as ligand was derived from salicylaldehyde and ethylenediamine. The Schiff-base complex was marked as [Pb(salen)]. In addition, the effect of the irradiation time and the type of reducing agent on the morphology and purity of the final products was investigated. The as-synthesized PbTe nanostructures were characterized extensively by techniques like X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microwave formation mechanism of the PbTe nanostructures was studied by XRD patterns of the products. Although it was found that both ionic and atomic mechanisms could take place for the preparation of PbTe, the main steps were according to the atomic reaction process, which could occur between elemental Pb and Te.

Thermodynamic relations and equilibria in (Na2CO3 + NaHCO3 + H2O): standard Gibbs energies of formation and other properties of sodium hydrogen carbonate, sodium carbonate heptahydrate, sodium carbonate decahydrate, trona: (Na2CO3*NaHCO3*2H2O), and Wegscheider's salt: (Na2CO3*3NaHCO3)

Vanderzee, Cecil E.

, p. 219 - 238 (1982)

Literature results for numerous heterogeneous equilibria in the three-component system (Na2CO3+NaHCO3+H2O) or (Na2CO3+CO2+H2O) were critically evaluated.Careful attention was given to evaluation of activity coefficients and pressure effects.Temperature effects were treated using enthalpies of formation determined previously for the reacting species.Standard Gibbs energies of formation at 298.15 K were evaluated: -(2714.94 +/- 0.30) kJ/mol for Na2CO3*7H2O(s); -(3428.61 +/- 0.40) kJ/mol for Na2CO3*10H2O(s); -(851.30 +/- 0.19) kJ/mol for NaHCO3(s); -(2381.33 +/- 0.55) kJ/mol for trona: Na2CO3*NaHCO3*2H2O(s); -(3604.72 +/- 0.80) kJ/mol for Wegscheider's salt: Na2CO3*3NaHCO3(s).Corresponding standard entropies at 298.15 K are: (422.36 +/- 1.50), (562.74 +/- 1.15), (102.36 +/- 0.80), (303.13 +/- 1.70), and (433.33 +/- 2.50) J/K*mol, respectively, in the same order.The upper temperature limit for existence of trona was evaluated as 395 K.NaHCO3(s) heated in a small closed container forms a saturated solution of NaHCO3(s) and Na2CO3*3NaHCO3(s) at 402 K and above.Likewise, Na2CO3*3NaHCO3(s) heated in a small closed container forms a saturated solution of Na2CO3(s) and Na2CO3*3NaHCO3(s) at 460 K and above.The results permit interpretation of equilibria in the system up to at least 600 K.

Gorski, A.,Krasnicka, A. D.

, p. 1895 - 1904 (1987)

Synthesis and characterisation of Na5[CoO2]CO3

Sofin, Mikhail,Peters, Eva M.,Jansen, Martin

, p. 1461 - 1463 (2002)

Na5[CoO2]CO3 was prepared via the azide/nitrate route. Stoichiometric mixtures of the precursors (Co3O4, NaN3, NaNO3 and Na2CO3) were heated in a special regime up to 500°C and annealed at this temperature for 50 h in silver crucibles. Single crystals have been grown by subsequent annealing of the powder at 500°C for 2000 h in silver crucibles, which were sealed in glass ampoules under dry Ar. According to the X-ray analysis of the crystal structure (P4/mmm, Z = 1, a = 4.6467(4), c = 8.2577(6) A?). Na5[CoO2]CO3 is isostructural with Na5[NiO2]CO3 and contains Co1+, which is coordinated by two oxygen atoms forming a dumb-bell. Na5CoCO5 decomposes at 600°C to Na3CoO2 and Na2CO3.

Worm

, p. 688 - 688 (1897)

Effect of semiconducting metal oxide additives on the kinetics of thermal decomposition of sodium oxalate under isothermal conditions

Jose John,Muraleedharan,Kannan,Ganga Devi

, p. 71 - 76 (2012)

The effect of semiconducting metal oxide (CuO and TiO2) additives on the kinetics of thermal decomposition of sodium oxalate (Na 2C2O4) to sodium carbonate has been studied at five different temperatures in the

Duval, C.,Wadier, C.,Servigne, Y.

, p. 263 - 267 (1959)

Bayer, G.,Wiedemann, H.-G.

, p. 125 - 130 (1988)

Thermal decomposition of copper(II) and zinc carbonate hydroxides by means of TG-MS: Quantitative analyses of evolved gases

Koga,Tanaka

, p. 725 - 729 (2005)

For the quantitative analyses of evolved CO2and H2O during the thermal decomposition of solids, calibration curves, i.e. the amounts of evolved gases vs. the corresponding peak areas of mass chromatograms measured by TG-MS, were plot

Wu, Yee-Lin,Shih, Shin-Min

, p. 177 - 186 (1993)

The hidden equilibrium in aqueous sodium carbonate solutions - Evidence for the formation of the dicarbonate anion

Zeller, Klaus-Peter,Schuler, Paul,Haiss, Peter

, p. 168 - 172 (2005)

Crossover 13C NMR experiments between [13C]carbonate and [18O]carbonate in aqueous solution confirm the combined action of two oxygen-exchange modes. The isotopomeric carbon dioxides formed in the hydrolysis equilibrium of

Hwang, Ching-Jiang,Lee, Jinn-Shing,Huang, Ching-Wang

, p. 253 - 258 (1991)

Marotta, A.,Saiello, S.,Buri, A.

, p. 193 - 198 (1982)

Detection and identification of corrosion products of sodium aluminoborosilicate glasses by 23Na MQMAS and 1H→23Na CPMAS NMR

Egan,Mueller

, p. 9580 - 9586 (2000)

23Na multiple-quantum (MQ) MAS NMR is applicable for monitoring the chemical and structural changes resulting from atmospheric exposure of a series of alkali aluminoborosilicate glasses with compositions RNa2O: 1B2O3:1SiO2:0.25Al2O3 (where R = 0.5-2.5). Glasses with high alkali concentrations possess greater numbers of nonbridging oxygens within the bulk structure and presumably at the initial surface of a fresh sample, and for three samples with R≥1.5 sharp resonances are revealed in the isotropic dimension of an MQMAS NMR experiment conducted after prolonged atmospheric exposure. The MQMAS NMR experiments, combined with 1H→23Na cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR measurements, indicate that these resonances arise from sodium cations no longer participating in the glass network. Two new phases are formed as corrosion products and have been identified as an anhydrous Na2CO3 phase and a NaBO2·1H2O phase through comparison with 23Na MQMAS and 1H→23Na CPMAS NMR spectra of crystalline samples. Due to an inherent difficulty with direct quantification of populations based on MQMAS spectra, a simplified approach for quantification of the amount of the new carbonate phase is presented. Values are then calculated for relative amounts of corrosion product formation for different exposure times and bulk glass compositions.

Thermal Decomposition of Solid Sodium Sesquicarbonate, Na2CO3*NaHCO3*2H2O

Ball, Matthew C.,Snelling, Christine M.,Strachan, Alec N.,Strachan, Rebecca M.

, p. 631 - 636 (1992)

The thermal decomposition of solid sodium sesquicarbonate has been studied at temperatures between 350 and 487 K in nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres.In nitrogen, a single-stage decomposition to sodium carbonate occurs, following Avrami-Erofeyev kinetics (n = 2), with an inflexion at ca. 390 K.The activation energies are 24 kJ mol-1 for the high-temperature region and 58 kJ mol-1 for the low-temperature region.In carbon dioxide above 435 K, the single-stage reaction follows contracting disc kinetics with an activation energy of 29 kJ mol-1.In carbon dioxide at low temperatures, wegscheiderite (Na2CO3*3NaHCO3) and sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3*H2O) are formed, and this reaction follows first-order kinetics, withb an activation energy of 67 kJ mol-1.Microscopic evidence is also presented.Relationships between the decomposition of sesquicarbonate and other related compounds are discussed.

Study on the thermodynamic properties and dehydration reaction kinetics of some salt-hydrates

Zhang,Wang,Dai

, p. 109 - 115 (1995)

Correlations were determined between heat capacity and temperature and phase change enthalpy of Ba(OH)2·8H2O. The phase diagram and DSC curve of the binary system Na2CO3·10H2O-Na2HPO4

Galwey, Andrew Knox,Hood, William John

, p. 1810 - 1816 (1979)

Thermal Decomposition of Sodium Carbonate Perhydrate in the Presence of Liquid Water

Galvey, Andrew Knox,Hood, William John

, p. 2815 - 2828 (1982)

A kinetic study has been made of the decomposition of sodium carbonate perhydrate, Na2CO3.1 1/2 H2O2, in the presence of small quantities of added water at 323-343 K.Reactions were deceleratory throughout and rates in the later stages were further reduced when the quantity of water available was insufficient to permit complete initial dissolution of the reactant solid.Rate coefficients measured for these reactions were compared with similarly determined data for the probable contributory processes.These were the decompositions, in saturated aqueous Na2CO3, of (i) H2O2 and (ii) Na2CO3.1 1/2 H2O2.From the pattern of behaviour observed it was concluded that the reaction of Na2CO3.1 1/2 H2O2 in water proceeds in two stages: heterogeneous dissolution of the reactant crystallites is followed by the homogenous breakdown of H2O2 in solution.This mechanism is distinct and different from the vacuum decomposition of the solid.It is concluded that the rate of the homogenous breakdown of H2O2 is probably controlled by catalytic processes involving transition-metal ions present in solution as impurities.This conclusion is supported by the observation that the present reaction was inhibited by added sodium silicate.The kinetics and mechanisms of these reactions are discussed.The heterogeneous reaction investigated involved both a solid reactant and intermediates dissolved in the added liquid water.This combination of reactants has hitherto been the subject of relatively few detailed kinetic studies.Separate investigations of the individual steps which contribute to the overall change, in this particularly favourable system, has led to the identification of a simple reaction mechanism that is entirely consistent with the observations.The approach demonstrates the value of using complementary rate measurements to characterize the kinetics and mechanism of this decomposition involving both solid and dissolved participants.

Fire retardancy impact of sodium bicarbonate on ligno-cellulosic materials

Bakirtzis,Delichatsios,Liodakis,Ahmed

, p. 11 - 19 (2009)

In this paper, the effect of NaHCO3 as fire retardant additive during pyrolysis and combustion has been investigated. Four different contents (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% w/w) of NaHCO3 have been tested on Pinus brutia, Laurus nobilis and

Carbon dioxide conversion into the reaction intermediate sodium formate for the synthesis of formic acid

Masood, Muhammad Hanan,Haleem, Noor,Shakeel, Iqra,Jamal, Yousuf

, p. 5165 - 5180 (2020/09/03)

Increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic activities are a contributing factor to the growing global warming worldwide. The economical method to recover and effectively reuse CO2 is through adsorption and absorption. In this study, CO2 is absorbed into the solution of sodium hydroxide having various concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0?N), and the impact of the solution pH on the various product formation was observed. The resultant products formed at different pH of the absorbing solution are sodium carbonate at pH 10, Trona at pH 9, and sodium hydrogen carbonate at pH 8. The products formed are confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. After pH optimization, the sodium hydrogen carbonate formed at pH 8 is converted into sodium formate through hydrogenation in the presence of nickel ferrite catalyst at 80 °C and atmospheric pressure. The sodium formate produced is then used as a precursor to synthesize formic acid upon simple reaction with sulfuric acid. A reaction % age yield of 79 ± 0.2% formic acid is noted. Condensed formic acid vapors are later analyzed, using a high performance?liquid chromatography for the qualitative analysis.

Features of the Thermolysis of Li, Na, and Cd Maleates

Avdin, V. V.,Merzlov, S. V.,Nayfert, S. A.,Polozov, M. A.,Polozova, V. V.,Sakthi Dharan, C. P.,Taskaev, S. V.,Zherebtsov, D. A.

, p. 1311 - 1318 (2020/07/21)

Abstract: Processes of the multi-stage decomposition of maleic acid and Li, Na, and Cd maleates in an inert atmosphere are studied via thermal analysis with synchronous analysis of the composition of the released gases. Reaction mechanisms are proposed according to the data on the mass loss stages determined via thermal analysis, gaseous products, and the final solid decomposition products. It is shown that when heated to 700°C, Li and Na carbonates incorporated into the porous carbon matrix are the final products. Above 350°C, cadmium is reduced from oxide to metal and evaporates to form a porous carbon residue as the only product of thermolysis. All carbon products are X-ray amorphous. Maleic acid decomposes completely into gaseous products in the range of 133–239°C. The maleate ion is more stable in the structure of lithium maleate than in free maleic acid, and Na and Cd cations reduce its stability.

Synthesis, crystal structure and optical properties of a new fluorocarbonate with an interesting sandwich-like structure

Tang, Changcheng,Jiang, Xingxing,Guo, Shu,Xia, Mingjun,Liu, Lijuan,Wang, Xiaoyang,Lin, Zheshuai,Chen, Chuangtian

, p. 6464 - 6469 (2018/05/23)

A new fluorocarbonate, Na3Zn2(CO3)3F, was synthesized using a subcritical hydrothermal method. Na3Zn2(CO3)3F crystallizes in the space group C2/c with a sandwich-like framework in which the stacked [Zn(CO3)]∞ layers are connected with one another by bridging F atoms and [CO3] groups alternately. Interestingly, each Zn atom is surrounded by one F atom and four O atoms, forming a distorted [ZnO4F] trigonal bipyramid, which is observed for the first time in the carbonate system. Na3Zn2(CO3)3F has high transparency in a wide spectral region ranging from UV to mid IR with a short ultraviolet absorption edge (~213 nm). First-principles calculations revealed that Na3Zn2(CO3)3F possesses a large birefringence (Δn = 0.11, λ = 589 nm), which is mainly contributed by the coplanar arrangement of [CO3] groups in the ab plane. Na3Zn2(CO3)3F might find applications as a UV birefringence crystal.

METHOD FOR PRODUCING METAL CARBONATE AND CATALYST FOR PRODUCING THE SAME

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Paragraph 0023; 0024, (2017/08/26)

A method for producing metal carbonate is disclosed. The method includes the following steps of providing a first mixture of metal and a catalyst containing iron, NO groups, and N-containing ligands first; then introducing carbon dioxide to the first mixture to form a second mixture and obtaining a product. The method described here can improve the yield and decrease the cost of metal carbonate production.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

sodium formate
141-53-7

sodium formate

sodium hydroxide
1310-73-2

sodium hydroxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 210°C react. slow, at 250°C fast;
above 270°C formed oxalate, which react with NaOH at 260°C slow, at 309°C unmeasurable quickly;
In not given; at melting with an excess of NaOH;;
>99
In not given; heating at 205°C;;
>99
above 270°C formed oxalate, which react with NaOH at 260°C slow, at 309°C unmeasurable quickly;
at 210°C react. slow, at 250°C fast;
disodium tetracarbonylferrate

disodium tetracarbonylferrate

carbon dioxide
124-38-9,18923-20-1

carbon dioxide

iron pentacarbonyl
13463-40-6,37220-42-1

iron pentacarbonyl

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
In tetrahydrofuran; reductive disproportionation, mechanism discussed;; IR; iron carbonyl not isolated;;
94%
82%
Sodium borate

Sodium borate

sodium hydrogencarbonate
144-55-8

sodium hydrogencarbonate

metaboric acid
13460-50-9

metaboric acid

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With water; In water; equilibrium reaction;;
With H2O; In water;
sodium nitrite
7632-00-0

sodium nitrite

nitrogen
7727-37-9

nitrogen

nitrogen(II) oxide
10102-43-9

nitrogen(II) oxide

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

dinitrogen monoxide
10024-97-2

dinitrogen monoxide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With pyrographite; byproducts: CO2, CO; very violent, at 360-370°C for some min;
With charcoal; byproducts: CO2, CO; very violent, at 360-370°C for some min;
sodium nitrite
7632-00-0

sodium nitrite

sodium hyponitrite

sodium hyponitrite

nitrogen
7727-37-9

nitrogen

nitrogen(II) oxide
10102-43-9

nitrogen(II) oxide

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

dinitrogen monoxide
10024-97-2

dinitrogen monoxide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With pyrographite; byproducts: CO2, CO; at 325°C;
With C; byproducts: CO2, CO; at 325°C;
sodium cyanide
773837-37-9

sodium cyanide

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

ammonia
7664-41-7

ammonia

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With water; In water; aq. soln. decompd. on heating up to over 400 °C;;
With H2O; In water; aq. soln. decompd. on heating up to over 400 °C;;
sodium sulfide
1313-82-2

sodium sulfide

sodium hydrogencarbonate
144-55-8

sodium hydrogencarbonate

hydrogen sulfide
7783-06-4

hydrogen sulfide

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With H2O; In not given; reaction with NaHCO3 on passing over H2O vapor;;
With H2O;
With water; In not given; reaction with NaHCO3 on passing over H2O vapor;;
With water; In neat (no solvent); calcination of a mixture of solid NaHCO3 from the ammonia soda process and Na2S with H2O vapor; formation of concd. H2S;; prepn. of sulfide-free Na2CO3;;
barium sulfide
21109-95-5

barium sulfide

sodium hydrogencarbonate
144-55-8

sodium hydrogencarbonate

hydrogen sulfide
7783-06-4

hydrogen sulfide

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With Na2SO4; In water;
With sodium sulfate; In water; mixing NaHCO3 from the ammonia soda process with BaS and Na2SO4; dissolving the mixture in water; expelling H2S with H2O vapor; pure Na2CO3 remains in the soln.;;
sodium sulfide
1313-82-2

sodium sulfide

water
7732-18-5

water

hydrogen sulfide
7783-06-4

hydrogen sulfide

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With pyrographite; In neat (no solvent); reaction of Na2S with H2O vapor formed by reduction with coal impured by hydrocarbons; reaction of NaOH with coal forming Na2CO3;; secondary reaction by reduction of Na2SO4 with coal;;
sodium hydrogen sulfide

sodium hydrogen sulfide

carbon dioxide
124-38-9,18923-20-1

carbon dioxide

hydrogen sulfide
7783-06-4

hydrogen sulfide

sodium carbonate
497-19-8

sodium carbonate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
In not given; reaction of CO2 with NaHS prepared by reaction of Na2SO4 soln. with Ca(HS)2; use of H2S to reprocess Ca(HS)2 by reaction with CaS;;
In not given; reaction of CO2 with NaHS prepared by reaction of Na2S and BaS with H2O;;
In not given; reaction of CO2 with NaHS prepared by reaction of NaHSO4 soln. with Ca(HS)2;;

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