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Cas Database

79-14-1

79-14-1

Identification

  • Product Name:Glycolic acid

  • CAS Number: 79-14-1

  • EINECS:201-180-5

  • Molecular Weight:76.052

  • Molecular Formula: C2H4O3

  • HS Code:2918199090

  • Mol File:79-14-1.mol

Synonyms:Aceticacid, hydroxy- (9CI);Glycolic acid (7CI,8CI);2-Hydroxyacetic acid;2-Hydroxyethanoic acid;GlyPure;GlyPure 70;GlyPure 99;Glycocide;Hydroxyaceticacid;Hydroxyethanoic acid;NSC 166;a-Hydroxyacetic acid;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):CorrosiveC

  • Hazard Codes: C:Corrosive;

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damageH332 Harmful if inhaled

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Half-upright position. Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention. In case of skin contact First rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, then remove contaminated clothes and rinse again. In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Do NOT induce vomiting. Give one or two glasses of water to drink. Refer for medical attention . Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Organic acids and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media Suitable extinguishing media: Use water spray, alcohol - resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Personal protection: chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. Accidental Release Measures. Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapors, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. Environmental precautions: Do not let product enter drains. Methods and materials for containment and clean up: Pick up and arrange disposal without creating dust. Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Separated from strong oxidants, metals, sulfides, cyanides, strong bases and food and feedstuffs. Dry.Separated from strong oxidants, metals, sulfides, cyanides, strong bases and food and feedstuffs. Dry.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesBiological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 331 Articles be found

Gas Evolution Oscillators. 2. A Reexamination of Formic Acid Dehydration

Smith, Kenneth W.,Noyes, Richard M.,Bowers, Peter G.

, p. 1514 - 1519 (1983)

At formic acid concentrations of about 0.3 M in warm concentrated sulfuric acid, carbon monoxide is evolved smoothly whether the solution is stirred or not.If such a solution is rapidly stirred, decay of formic acid obeys clean irreversible first-order kinetics.If the solution is not stirred, the concentration of dissolved carbon monoxide rises to a limit of about 0.07 M; this value is about 80 times the equilibrium solubility at 1 atm.In an unstirred solution, the system approaches a "pseudoequilibrium" in which the concentrations of dissolved HCOOH and CO are about equal.If the concentration of formic acid is increased to about 4 M, gas is evolved from a gently stirred solution in oscillatory pulses.The amount of gas evolved during a pulse decreases with successive pulses, the maximum change in dissolved-gas concentration being approximately 0.07 M per pulse.These observations indicate that the oscillations result from repetitive release of supersaturation by homogeneous nucleation; they invalidate the purely chemical explanation developed by Showalter and Noyes.Supersaturations of up to 80-fold suggest that formic acid in concentrated sulfuric acid can generate carbon monoxide in situ at concentrations that could otherwise only be attained with high-pressure apparatus.

Glycolic acid production using ethylene glycol-oxidizing microorganisms

Kataoka, Michihiko,Sasaki, Mie,Hidalgo, Aklani-Rose G.D.,Nakano, Michiko,Shimizu, Sakayu

, p. 2265 - 2270 (2001)

Screening for microorganisms oxidizing ethylene glycol to glycolic acid was carried out. Among stock cultures, several yeasts and acetic acid bacteria showed high glycolic acid producing activity. Pichia naganishii AKU 4267 formed the highest concentration of glycolic acid, 35.3 g/l, from 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (molar conversion yield, 26.0%). Among soil isolates, Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126, isolated using propylene glycol as a sole carbon source, formed the highest concentration of glycolic acid, 25.1 g/l, from 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (molar conversion yield, 18.5%). Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126 showed higher activity toward 20% (v/v) ethylene glycol than P. naganishii AKU 4267. Optimization of the conditions for glycolic acid production was investigated using P. naganishii AKU 4267 and Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126. Under the optimized conditions, P. naganishii AKU 4267 and Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126 formed 105 and 110 g/l of glycolic acid (corrected molar conversion yields, 88.0 and 92.2%) during 120 h of reaction, respectively.

Glycolic acid formation in Chlorella.

WARBURG,KRIPPAHL

, (1960)

-

Theoretical study of Al(iii)-catalyzed conversion of glyoxal to glycolic acid: Dual activated 1,2-hydride shift mechanism by protonated Al(OH) 3 species

Ohshima, Takashi,Yamamoto, Yoshihiro,Takaki, Usaji,Inoue, Yoshihisa,Saeki, Takuya,Itou, Kenji,Maegawa, Yusuke,Iwasaki, Takanori,Mashima, Kazushi

, p. 2688 - 2690 (2009)

Density functional theory calculations demonstrate that Al(iii)-catalyzed conversion of glyoxal to glycolic acid proceeds via a 7-membered dual Lewis acid-hydrogen bonding activation transition state of the 1,2-hydride shift, rather than the previously proposed 5-membered metal-alkoxide chelate activation transition state. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009.

Facilitated series electrochemical hydrogenation of oxalic acid to glycolic acid using TiO2 nanotubes

Im, Sunmi,Park, Yiseul,Saad, Sarwar

, (2022/01/11)

In this study, the electrochemical reduction of oxalic acid (OX) was performed at electrodes made of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) in an aqueous medium under potentiostatic control in a two-compartment cell. The competing H2 evolution was almost non-existent at an applied potential of ?1.0 V vs Ag/AgCl. Thus, complete conversion of OX was achieved in high chemical (95%) and Faradaic (67%) yields. The selectivity of glycolic acid (GC) formation over that of glyoxylic acid (GO) is controlled by the length of the TNTs. A high selectivity (GC/GO ≈ 10) was obtained (glycolic acid/glyoxylic acid ≈ 10). The physical properties of the TNTs, such as length, uniformity, and mechanical strength, were controlled by varying the anodization time and the electrolyte composition.

PROCESSES FOR PREPARING ALDARIC, ALDONIC, AND URONIC ACIDS

-

Paragraph 0113-0116, (2021/05/29)

Various processes for preparing aldaric acids, aldonic acids, uronic acids, and/or lactone(s) thereof are described. For example, processes for preparing a C2-C7 aldaric acid and/or lactone(s) thereof by the catalytic oxidation of a C2-C7 aldonic acid and/or lactone(s) thereof and/or a C2-C7 aldose are described.

Experimental and kinetic study of the conversion of waste starch into glycolic acid over phosphomolybdic acid

Dai, Hongqi,Qiao, Yongzhen,Wang, Xiu

, p. 30961 - 30970 (2021/11/19)

The starch used to enhance the paper surface dissolves in water during the production process and forms pollutants that accumulate in water when old corrugated cardboard (OCC) is returned to a paper mill for pulping and reuse. At present, anaerobic fermentation is widely used in the paper industry to treat starch-containing wastewater, producing biogas energy, or oxidative decomposition, which is a huge waste of valuable starch resources. Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) is a highly selective catalyst for the oxidation of carbohydrates; therefore, PMo12 can be envisaged as a suitable catalyst to convert waste starch into glycolic acid, an important high added-value chemical. In this paper, the catalytic oxidation technology of PMo12 was explored to produce glycolic acid from starch contained in OCC papermaking wastewater, and the kinetics and influencing factors of the catalytic oxidation reaction were studied. The results indicated that the PMo12-catalyzed oxidation of starch followed a first-order reaction; the reaction rate constant increased with increasing the temperature, the apparent activation energy of starch to monosaccharide was 104.7 kJ mol-1, the apparent activation energies of starch and monosaccharide to humins were 126.5 and 140.5 kJ mol-1, and the apparent activation energy of monosaccharide to glycolic acid was 117.2 kJ mol-1. The yields of monosaccharide and glycolic acid were 80.7 wt% and 12.9 wt%, respectively, and the utilization of starch resources was about 90.0 wt% under the following reaction conditions: temperature, 145 °C; reaction time, 120 min; pH, 2. Therefore, the feasibility of the PMo12-catalyzed oxidation of starch to produce high value-added glycolic acid is demonstrated, which has theoretical guiding significance and potential application value for the clean production and resource utilization of waste starch in the OCC papermaking process.

Homogeneous Reforming of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol to Glycolic Acid and Pure Hydrogen Catalyzed by Pincer-Ruthenium Complexes Capable of Metal–Ligand Cooperation

Zou, You-Quan,von Wolff, Niklas,Rauch, Michael,Feller, Moran,Zhou, Quan-Quan,Anaby, Aviel,Diskin-Posner, Yael,Shimon, Linda J. W.,Avram, Liat,Ben-David, Yehoshoa,Milstein, David

supporting information, p. 4715 - 4722 (2021/02/20)

Glycolic acid is a useful and important α-hydroxy acid that has broad applications. Herein, the homogeneous ruthenium catalyzed reforming of aqueous ethylene glycol to generate glycolic acid as well as pure hydrogen gas, without concomitant CO2 emission, is reported. This approach provides a clean and sustainable direction to glycolic acid and hydrogen, based on inexpensive, readily available, and renewable ethylene glycol using 0.5 mol % of catalyst. In-depth mechanistic experimental and computational studies highlight key aspects of the PNNH-ligand framework involved in this transformation.

Oxidative Conversion of Glucose to Formic Acid as a Renewable Hydrogen Source Using an Abundant Solid Base Catalyst

Takagaki, Atsushi,Obata, Wataru,Ishihara, Tatsumi

, p. 954 - 959 (2021/07/14)

Formic acid is one of the most desirable liquid hydrogen carriers. The selective production of formic acid from monosaccharides in water under mild reaction conditions using solid catalysts was investigated. Calcium oxide, an abundant solid base catalyst available from seashell or limestone by thermal decomposition, was found to be the most active of the simple oxides tested, with formic acid yields of 50 % and 66 % from glucose and xylose, respectively, in 1.4 % H2O2 aqueous solution at 343 K for 30 min. The main reaction pathway is a sequential formation of formic acid from glucose by C?C bond cleavage involving aldehyde groups in the acyclic form. The reaction also involves base-catalyzed aldose-ketose isomerization and retroaldol reaction, resulting in the formation of fructose and trioses including glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone. These intermediates were further decomposed into formic acid or glycolic acid. The catalytic activity remained unchanged for further reuse by a simple post-calcination.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

L-Tartaric acid
87-69-4,138508-61-9

L-Tartaric acid

carbon dioxide
124-38-9,18923-20-1

carbon dioxide

sulfuric acid
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

DL-tartaric acid
133-37-9,138508-61-9

DL-tartaric acid

2-oxo-propionic acid
127-17-3

2-oxo-propionic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
rhodamine B
81-88-9

rhodamine B

phenylacetic acid
103-82-2

phenylacetic acid

glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

propylene glycol
57-55-6,63625-56-9

propylene glycol

cyclohexen-1-ol
4065-81-0

cyclohexen-1-ol

1.3-butanediol
18826-95-4,107-88-0

1.3-butanediol

4-Methyl-1-pentanol
626-89-1

4-Methyl-1-pentanol

terephthalic acid
100-21-0

terephthalic acid

Phthalic acid dibutyl ester
84-74-2

Phthalic acid dibutyl ester

2-Phenylbutyric acid
90-27-7

2-Phenylbutyric acid

cyclohexanol
108-93-0

cyclohexanol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
for 0.5h; pH=5; UV-irradiation; Darkness;
Conditions
Conditions Yield
With Pt-Mn/C; In water; at 225 ℃; under 22502.3 Torr; Catalytic behavior;
glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

ethylene glycol
107-21-1

ethylene glycol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With platinum on activated charcoal; In water; at 225 ℃; under 22502.3 Torr; Catalytic behavior;
glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With Pt-Mn/C; In water; at 225 ℃; under 22502.3 Torr; Catalytic behavior;
2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol
52-51-7

2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol

2,2-dinitroethanol
29609-98-1

2,2-dinitroethanol

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

2-bromo-2-nitro-1-ethanol
5437-60-5

2-bromo-2-nitro-1-ethanol

2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol
126-11-4

2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With borax buffer; In tert-butyl alcohol; Rate constant; pH 8.98;
2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol
52-51-7

2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

2-bromo-2-nitro-1-ethanol
5437-60-5

2-bromo-2-nitro-1-ethanol

2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol
126-11-4

2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With potassium hydroxide; Mechanism;
butyric acid
107-92-6

butyric acid

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

4-hydroxybutanoic acid
591-81-1

4-hydroxybutanoic acid

acetaldehyde
75-07-0,9002-91-9

acetaldehyde

acetic acid
64-19-7,77671-22-8

acetic acid

acetone
67-64-1

acetone

2-Hydroxybutanoic acid
600-15-7,565-70-8

2-Hydroxybutanoic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With potassium tetrachloroplatinate; iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate; sulfuric acid; oxygen; In water; at 150 ℃; for 6h; under 15001.5 Torr; Catalytic behavior;
butyric acid
107-92-6

butyric acid

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

glycolic Acid
79-14-1

glycolic Acid

4-hydroxybutanoic acid
591-81-1

4-hydroxybutanoic acid

succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

acetaldehyde
75-07-0,9002-91-9

acetaldehyde

acetic acid
64-19-7,77671-22-8

acetic acid

acetone
67-64-1

acetone

2-Hydroxybutanoic acid
600-15-7,565-70-8

2-Hydroxybutanoic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With potassium tetrachloroplatinate; iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate; sulfuric acid; oxygen; In water; at 150 ℃; for 6h; under 15001.5 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Catalytic behavior;
Conditions
Conditions Yield
With platinum on carbon; oxygen; In water; at 80 ℃; under 10501.1 Torr; pH=10; Temperature; pH-value;

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