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Ethyl Chloride 99.5% 99.8% 99.9%
Cas No: 75-00-3
No Data No Data 300 Metric Ton/Year Antimex Chemical Limied Contact Supplier
Chloroethane
Cas No: 75-00-3
USD $ 3.0-3.0 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 1-100 Metric Ton/Month Dayang Chem (Hangzhou) Co.,Ltd. Contact Supplier
High quality Ethyl Chloride supplier in China
Cas No: 75-00-3
No Data 1 Metric Ton 30 Metric Ton/Month Simagchem Corporation Contact Supplier
CHLOROETHANE
Cas No: 75-00-3
No Data 1 Kilogram 20 Metric Ton/Week Henan Allgreen Chemical Co.,Ltd Contact Supplier
Chloroethane
Cas No: 75-00-3
USD $ 1.0-1.0 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 2000 Metric Ton/Year Henan Sinotech Import&Export Corporation Contact Supplier
Factory Supply Chloroethane
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Chloroethane
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No Data 1 Kilogram 10 Metric Ton/Month Henan Tianfu Chemical Co., Ltd. Contact Supplier
Chloroethane
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CHLOROETHANE Ingredients
Cas No: 75-00-3
USD $ 50.0-60.0 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 100 Kilogram/Week Baoji Guokang Healthchem co.,ltd Contact Supplier
Top quality Ethane, chloro-
Cas No: 75-00-3
USD $ 100.0-150.0 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 1000 Metric Ton/Day Wuhan Monad Medicine Tech Co.,LTD Contact Supplier

75-00-3 Usage

Carcinogenicity

The EPA has not made a carcinogenicity assessment as yet. However, the State of California reviewed the carcinogenicity information. CalEPA, using the NTP study, developed a cancer potency estimate of 4.7E-3 per mg/kg/day and defined a No Significance Risk Level (NSRL) of 1 50 μg/day. Increased cancer of the uterus of female mice has been produced by exposure to 15,000 ppm, but lower concentrations have not been studied. Rats and mice were exposed to 0 or 15,000 ppm of ethyl chloride in an NTP 2-year study with mixed results. Results in male rats were considered equivocal based on a combined total of five skin tumors versus none in the control male rats. Likewise, female rats’ results were considered equivocal because three astrocytomas were found versus none in the female control rats. The male mouse group had such poor survival that it was deemed an inadequate study although combined alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas were reported (10/48 versus 5/50 in the control male rats). Female mice exposed to 15,000 ppm had clear evidence of an effect, for 43/50 mice had endometrial uterine carcinomas versus 0/49 in the female control mice. In addition, there was a suggestion of an increase in combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the female mice (8/48 exposed versus 3/49 control). There is clear evidence for carcinogenicity in female B6C3F1 mice and equivocal evidence in male and female F344/N rats (high incidence of uterine carcinomas.)

Overview

Chloroethane (also known as ethyl chloride) is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H5Cl, and has been widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive. It is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor. Ethyl chloride is used in the production of ethyl cellulose, use as a solvent, refrigerant, and topical anesthetic, in the manufacture of dyes, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals, and as a medication to alleviate pain associated with insect burns and stings.[1] In the past, ethyl chloride was used in the production of tetraethyl lead, an anti-knock additive to leaded gasoline. Government-mandated reduction in the amount of lead additives used in gasoline in the United States and a shift to the use of unleaded gasoline has caused a drastic reduction in the amount of ethyl chloride required for the production of tetraethyl lead.[1]

Chemical Properties

Ethyl chloride is a colorless gas or liquid (below 12℃) with a pungent, ethereal odor and a burning taste. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.

Purification Methods

Pass ethyl chloride through absorption towers containing, successively, conc H2SO4, NaOH pellets, P2O5 on glass wool, or soda-lime, CaCl2, P2O5. Condensed it into a flask containing CaH2 and fractionally distil it. It has also been purified by illumination in the presence of bromine at 0o using a 1000W lamp, followed by washing, drying and distilling. [Beilstein 1 IV 124.]

Uses

Refrigerant, solvent, alkylating agent, starting point in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead: US 1907701 (1933).

Source and exposure

Sources of possible ethyl chloride exposure include the inhalation of contaminated air and ingestion of contaminated drinking water at very low levels. The general population can be exposed to ethyl chloride by skin contact with consumer products that contain ethyl chloride such as solvents and refrigerants. Occupational exposure by inhalation or dermal contact with ethyl chloride can occur in industries such as medical and health services; automotive dealers and service stations; wholesale trade, electric, gas, and sanitary services; machinery (except electrical) and special trade contractors; fabricated metal productions; printing and publishing; painting; rubber and plastic products; and food.[1]?Although chemists use tests such as gas chromatography to measure ethyl chloride in blood, milk, or urine, no commonly used medical tests are available to determine whether or not a person has been exposed to ethyl chloride.[1]

Uses

Ethyl chloride is used as a refrigerant, as asolvent, in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead,and as an alkylating agent. It is also used asa topical anesthetic.

Health Hazard

Exposure to high levels of ethyl chloride cancause stupor, eye irritation, incoordination,abdominal cramps, anesthetic effects, cardiacarrest, and unconsciousness. No toxic effectswere noted at a concentration of 10,000 ppm.A 45-minute exposure to a 4% concentrationof ethyl chloride in air was lethal to guineapigs. A brief exposure for 5 to 10 minutes toa concentration of 10% of the gas was notfatal to the test animals but caused kidneyand liver damage. In humans narcotic effectsmay occur after a few inhalations of 5–10%concentrations of the gas. Irritant effectson the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract aremild. Skin contact with the liquid can causefrostbite due to cooling by rapid evaporation.LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 60,000 ppm/2 hr.

Definition

A gaseous compound made by the addition of hydrogen chloride to ethene. It is used as a refrigerant and a local anesthetic.

Solubility in water

Soluble in ethanol, ether (U.S. EPA, 1985); miscible with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and tetrachloroethane.

General Description

A clear colorless gas with a pungent odor. Flash point -58°F. Boiling point 54°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors are heavier than air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket.Ethyl chloride is used as a solvent for oils,resins,and waxes. It is used in medicine and as an intermediate in synthesis.

Hazard

Highly flammable, severe fire and explosion risk; flammable limits in air 3.8–15.4%. Irritant to eyes. Questionable carcinogen.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.

Chemical Properties

Ethyl chloride is a colorless gas with an ethereal odor[1,6]. Ethyl chloride has an odor threshold of 4.2 parts per million (ppm)[7]. Ethyl chloride is slightly soluble in water[1]. The chemical formula for ethyl chloride is C2H5Cl, and it has a molecular weight of 64.52 g/mol[1,3]. The vapor pressure for ethyl chloride is 1,008 mm Hg at 20°C, and the log octanol/water partition; coefficient (log Kow) is 1.43; coefficient (log Kow) is 1.43.[1]

Shipping

UN1037 Ethyl chloride, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water: No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Production Methods

Ethyl Chloride can be synthesized by treatment of ethyl alcohol with HCl, cleavage of diethylether with HCl in the presence of a catalyst (ZnCl2), chlorination of ethane or hydrochlorination of ethylene. The latter is the choice of industry. The reaction is carried out at 125 °F and 125 psi in the presence of AlCl3, which is dissolved in ethyl chloride.

Chemical Properties

colourless gas

Health Hazard

Vapor causes drunkenness, anesthesia, possible lung injury. Liquid may cause frostbite on eyes and skin.

Incompatibilities

Flammable gas. Slow reaction with water; forms hydrogen chloride gas. Contact with moisture (water, steam) forms hydrochloric acid and/or fumes of hydrogen chloride. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. May form explosive mixture with air. Contact with chemically active metals: aluminum, lithium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc may cause fire and explosions. Attacks some plastics and rubber.

Application

Ethyl chloride is used in the manufacture of tetraethyllead and as an alkylating agent in the production of ethylcellulose (which is used in paper coatings, printing inks, films, adhesives and moulded plastics), ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and some pharmaceuticals and as a foam-blowing agent in the manufacture of polystyrene. It is used as a local anaesthetic because of its rapid cooling effect as it vaporizes[1]. Historical and minor uses Include use in organic synthesis, as an alkylating agent in the production of aluminium alkyls and other metal alkyls and as a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, fats, oils, resins and waxes.

Environmental fate

Photolytic. The rate constant for the reaction of chloroethane and OH radicals in the atmosphere at 300 K is 2.3 x 10-11 cm3/molecule?sec (Hendry and Kenley, 1979). At 296 K, a photooxidation rate constant of 3.9 x 10-13 cm3/molecule?sec was reported (Howard and Evenson, 1976). The estimated tropospheric lifetime is 14.6 d (Nimitz and Skaggs, 1992). Chemical/Physical. Under laboratory conditions, chloroethane hydrolyzed to ethanol (Smith and Dragun, 1984). An estimated hydrolysis half-life in water at 25 °C and pH 7 is 38 d, with ethanol and HCl being the expected end-products (Mabey and Mill, 1978). Based on a measured hydrolysis rate constant of 5.1 x 10-7 at 25 °C and pH 7, the half-life is 2.6 yr (Jeffers and Wolfe, 1996). In air, formyl chloride is the initial photooxidation product (U.S. EPA, 1985). In the presence of water, formyl chloride hydrolyzes to HCl and carbon monoxide (Morrison and Boyd, 1971). Burns with a smoky, greenish flame releasing hydrogen chloride (Windholz et al., 1983). In the laboratory, the evaporation half-life of chloroethane (1 mg/L) from water at 25 °C using a shallow-pitch propeller stirrer at 200 rpm at an average depth of 6.5 cm was 23.1 min (Dilling, 1977). At influent concentrations of 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/L, the GAC adsorption capacities at pH 5.3 were 0.59, 0.07, and 0.007 mg/g, respectively (Dobbs and Cohen, 1980).

Safety Profile

Suspected carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and neoplastigenic data. Mildly toxic by inhalation. An irritant to sh, eyes, and mucous membranes. The liquid is harmful to the eyes and can cause some irritation. In the case of guinea pigs, the symptoms attending exposure are similar to those caused by methyl chloride, except that the signs of lung irritation are not as pronounced. It gives some warning of its presence because it is irritating, but it is possible to tolerate exposure to it until one becomes unconscious. It is the least toxic of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons. It can cause narcosis, although the effects are usually transient. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Severe explosion hazard when exposed to flame. Reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Incompatible with potassium. To fight fire, use carbon dioxide. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of phosgene and Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.

Reactivity Profile

CHLOROETHANE is heat sensitive. CHLOROETHANE will hydrolyze in the presence of alkalis and water. CHLOROETHANE reacts with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. CHLOROETHANE can also react vigorously with oxidizing materials. The vapor forms highly flammable mixtures with air. A mixture of CHLOROETHANE with potassium is shock-sensitive. Contact with chemically active metals such as Na, K, Ca, powdered Al, Zn and Mg may result in violent reactions.

Physical properties

Clear, colorless gas or liquid with a pungent or faint, sweetish ether-like odor. When spilled, ethyl chloride evaporates quickly. Odor threshold concentration is 4.2 ppm (quoted, Amoore and Hautala, 1983).

Waste Disposal

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced.

Potential Exposure

Ethyl chloride is used as an ethylating agent in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead, dyes, drugs, and ethyl cellulose; as a pharmaceutical, solvent; alkylating agent; as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic (freezing).

Toxicity

Acute Effects Acute inhalation exposure to high levels of ethyl chloride in humans has resulted in temporary feelings of drunkenness, dizziness, lack of muscle coordination and unconsciousness. Accidental death has resulted from its former medical use as an anesthetic during major surgery.[1,2] Tests involving acute exposure of animals in rats and mice have shown ethyl chloride to have low toxicity from inhalation exposure.[3] Chronic Effects Neurological symptoms including ataxia, tremors, speech difficulties, slowed reflexes, involuntary eye movement, and hallucinations, and liver effects were reported in individuals who purposely inhaled very high concentrations of ethyl chloride for a few months.[4] Some animal studies indicate effects on the lungs, liver, kidneys, and heart due to ethyl chloride exposure via inhalation.[1] The Reference Concentration (RFC) for ethyl chloride is 10 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) based on delayed fetal ossification in mice. The RFC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups), which is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. It is not a direct esimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the RFC, the potential for adverse health effects increases. Lifetime exposure above the RFC does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur.[4] EPA has medium confidence in the study on which the RFC is based because, although the study is well conducted, it does not establish a firm concentration-response relationship with an adverse effect and was not performed at levels eliciting maternal toxicity; medium confidence in the database due to the lack of a multigenerational reproductive study and a developmental study in a second species; and, consequently, medium confidence in the RFC.[4]?EPA has not established a Reference Dose (RfD) for ethyl chloride.[4] Reproductive/Developmental Effects No studies were located regarding reproductive or developmental effects following ethyl chloride inhalation exposure in humans. Several animal studies found no reproductive effects caused by ethyl chloride exposure. An animal study reported a decrease in uterine weights, while another study reported minimal evidence of fetotoxicity (increase in centers of unossified bones of the skull) from inhalation exposure to ethyl chloride.[1] Cancer Risk There are no human cancer data available for ethyl chloride. A 2-year bioassay performed by the NTP indicated that inhaled ethyl chloride is carcinogenic in female mice and may be carcinogenic in rats. Female mice experienced a significant increase in the incidence of uterine tumors and hepatocellular tumors, but the data on male mice were considered inadequate because of a low survival rate. Benign and malignant epithelial neoplasms of the skin, and three uncommon malignant astorcyomas of the brain, were reported in male and female rats, respectively.[5] EPA has not classified ethyl chloride for carcinogenicity.[4]

Indications

Chlorethane (ethyl chloride) is a highly flammable liquid that acts as a topical vapocoolant to control pain associated with minor surgical procedures.When applied as a spray, the product produces freezing of superficial tissues to ?20?C, which results in insensitivity of peripheral nerve endings and local anesthesia that is maintained up to 1 minute. Other coolant sprays can be used with the same effect.

Production

The dominant process for production of ethyl chloride in the USA involves the addition of anhydrous hydrogen chloride to ethylene in the presence of an aluminium chloride catalyst. The hydrochlorination is a liquidphase reaction, carried out at about 40°C. Reacted products are fed into a flash evaporator column, where ethyl chloride is separated from less volatile compounds and then purified by fractionation. Hydrochlorination of ethanol has not been used for US ethyl chloride production since 1980, and chlorination of ethane (catalytically, electrolytically, thermallyor photochemically) has not been used at any production facility in the USA since 1974. Ethyl chloride is also obtained as a by-product from the production of vinyl chloride[1] or chlorofluorocarbon, although this method accounts for only a small amount.

References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Ethyl chloride (Update).Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1998. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Ethyl Chloride. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. 1999. National Toxicology Program. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ethyl chloride (Ethyl Chloride) (CAS No. 75-00-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies). TR No. 346. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. 1989. The Merck Index. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 11th ed. Ed. S. Budavari. Merck and Co. Inc., Rahway, NJ. 1989. J.E. Amoore and E. Hautala. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: Odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 3(6):272-290. 1983.

Definition

A highly reactive manmade volatile organic com- pound that is highly reactive in the atmosphere. It readily reacts with oxidizing agents to release the chlorine atoms which, circulate and cause tropo- spheric ozone to decompose.

Uses

Ethyl chloride is used as synthetic gums and thickeners in the lacquer and plastics industries. Ethyl chloride is also used in the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene and other aromatics. Additional uses include solvent, refrigerant, heat-transfer medium, aerosol propellant and anesthetic.
InChI:InChI=1/C2H5Cl/c1-2-3/h2H2,1H3

75-00-3 Well-known Company Product Price

Brand (Code)Product description CAS number Packaging Price Detail
TCI America (C2883)  Chloroethane (ca. 15% in Tetrahydrofuran, ca. 2.0mol/L)   75-00-3 100mL 690.00CNY Detail
TCI America (C2883)  Chloroethane (ca. 15% in Tetrahydrofuran, ca. 2.0mol/L)   75-00-3 500mL 2,390.00CNY Detail
Supelco (CRM40015)  Chloroethane solution  certified reference material, TraceCERT®, 1000 μg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL 75-00-3 CRM40015 342.81CNY Detail
Aldrich (338303)  Chloroethanesolution  2.0 M in tert-butyl methyl ether, anhydrous 75-00-3 338303-200ML 2,639.52CNY Detail

75-00-3SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name chloroethane

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names ethyl cerotate

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Volatile organic compounds
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:75-00-3 SDS

75-00-3Synthetic route

O-ethyl N-methyl-N-phenylthiocarbamate
87463-00-1

O-ethyl N-methyl-N-phenylthiocarbamate

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

(N-methyl-N-phenylcarbamoyl)sulfenyl chloride
100244-53-9

(N-methyl-N-phenylcarbamoyl)sulfenyl chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuryl dichloride In chloroform-d1 at 5℃; for 0.166667h;A 100%
B n/a
With sulfuryl dichloride In chloroform-d1 at 25℃;
triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
945614-32-4

triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride
65039-09-0

1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride

A

1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
377739-43-0

1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

B

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

C

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 80℃; for 3h; Product distribution / selectivity;A 98.9%
B n/a
C n/a
triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
945614-32-4

triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylguanidinium chloride
30388-20-6

N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylguanidinium chloride

A

hexamethylguanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

hexamethylguanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

B

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

C

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 80℃; for 3h;A 98.9%
B n/a
C n/a
phosphonic acid diethyl ester
762-04-9

phosphonic acid diethyl ester

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

phosphorous acid monoethyl ester cobaltous salt

phosphorous acid monoethyl ester cobaltous salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With CoCl2 at 120℃; Product distribution; the thermal stability of the product was investigated by DTA, DTG and TG;A n/a
B 98%
triethyloxonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide
945614-34-6

triethyloxonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride
65039-09-0

1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride

A

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

B

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

C

1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide
174899-82-2

1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 80℃; for 3h;A n/a
B n/a
C 97.9%
dimethyl chloro ethoxy silane
1825-69-0

dimethyl chloro ethoxy silane

acetyl chloride
75-36-5

acetyl chloride

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

acetoxydimethylsilyl isothiocyanate

acetoxydimethylsilyl isothiocyanate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 30 - 40℃; for 1h;A 97%
B 87%
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; aluminum (III) chloride; zinc(II) chloride at 70 - 120℃; under 900.09 - 2625.26 Torr; for 2h; Large scale;96.3%
With hydrogenchloride; zinc(II) chloride at 8 - 130℃;65%
With hydrogenchloride
diethyl (1-benzamido-2,2-dichlorovinyl)phosphonate
50966-09-1

diethyl (1-benzamido-2,2-dichlorovinyl)phosphonate

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

azlactone of (1-benzamido-2,2-dichlorovinyl)phosphonochloridic acid
77113-14-5

azlactone of (1-benzamido-2,2-dichlorovinyl)phosphonochloridic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphorus pentachloride at 110 - 120℃; for 5.5h;A n/a
B 96%
1-(chlorodimethylsilyl)-7-(ethoxydimethylsilyl)-m-carbaborane

1-(chlorodimethylsilyl)-7-(ethoxydimethylsilyl)-m-carbaborane

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

B10H10C2(Si(CH3)2O)(Si(CH3)2)

B10H10C2(Si(CH3)2O)(Si(CH3)2)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
iron(III) chloride In neat (no solvent) heating (120 - 130°C), addn. of further FeCl3, heating (180°C); reprecipitation (toluene); elem. anal.;A 96%
B 94.7%
triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
945614-32-4

triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

1-decyl-3-methylimidazol-3-ium chloride

1-decyl-3-methylimidazol-3-ium chloride

A

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

B

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

C

1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
916807-26-6

1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 80℃; for 3h;A n/a
B n/a
C 96%
ethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester
78-38-6

ethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

Ethylphosphonic dichloride
1066-50-8

Ethylphosphonic dichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With thionyl chloride; N,N-dimethyl-formamide for 18h; Heating;A n/a
B 95.8%
diethyl phosphorylchloridite
589-57-1

diethyl phosphorylchloridite

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate
17640-25-4

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate

A

monomethyl oxalyl chloride
5781-53-3

monomethyl oxalyl chloride

B

Dimethyl oxalate
553-90-2

Dimethyl oxalate

C

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

D

phosphonic dichloride
66298-75-7

phosphonic dichloride

E

methyl phosphonochloridate
74813-29-9

methyl phosphonochloridate

F

ethyl phosphonochloridate
74813-30-2

ethyl phosphonochloridate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron(III) chloride at 105 - 110℃; for 1.16667h; Product distribution;A n/a
B n/a
C 95%
D n/a
E n/a
F n/a
diethyl phosphorylchloridite
589-57-1

diethyl phosphorylchloridite

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate
17640-25-4

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate

A

Dimethyl oxalate
553-90-2

Dimethyl oxalate

B

phosphorodichloridous acid ethyl ester
1498-42-6

phosphorodichloridous acid ethyl ester

C

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

D

phosphonic dichloride
66298-75-7

phosphonic dichloride

E

ethyl phosphonochloridate
74813-30-2

ethyl phosphonochloridate

F

phosphonic dichloride

phosphonic dichloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron(III) chloride at 105 - 110℃; for 0.833333h; Product distribution;A n/a
B n/a
C 95%
D n/a
E n/a
F n/a
phosphonic acid diethyl ester
762-04-9

phosphonic acid diethyl ester

diphenylsilyl dichloride
80-10-4

diphenylsilyl dichloride

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

C16H22O6P2Si
90285-15-7

C16H22O6P2Si

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 102℃;A n/a
B 94.1%
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

phosphorus trichloride
7719-12-2, 52843-90-0

phosphorus trichloride

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

phosphonic acid diethyl ester
762-04-9

phosphonic acid diethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 85℃; under 30.003 Torr; Addition of ca.3% diethyl phosphite (triethyl phosphite or ethyl chloride are also possible);A n/a
B 94%
triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
945614-32-4

triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

trityl chloride
76-83-5

trityl chloride

A

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

B

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

C

tritylium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

tritylium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 80℃; for 10h;A n/a
B n/a
C 93.6%
phosphonic acid diethyl ester
762-04-9

phosphonic acid diethyl ester

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

phosphorous acid monoethyl ester calcium salt

phosphorous acid monoethyl ester calcium salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium chloride at 70℃; for 1h; Product distribution; other time; also in the presence of pyridine; the thermal stability of the product was investigated by DTA, DTG and TG;A n/a
B 93.4%
With calcium chloride at 70℃; for 1h;A n/a
B 93.4%
phosphonic acid diethyl ester
762-04-9

phosphonic acid diethyl ester

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

phosphorous acid monoethyl ester manganese salt

phosphorous acid monoethyl ester manganese salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With manganese(II) acetate at 112℃; for 1h; Product distribution; oter time; the thermal stability of the product was investigated by DTA, DTG and TG;A n/a
B 93%
triethylamine
121-44-8

triethylamine

phenylcarbonochloridothioate
1005-56-7

phenylcarbonochloridothioate

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

O-phenyl-N,N-diethyl thiocarbamate
24486-06-4

O-phenyl-N,N-diethyl thiocarbamate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 1h; Substitution;A n/a
B 93%
N-(n-hexyl)-N-methylpyrrolidinium chloride

N-(n-hexyl)-N-methylpyrrolidinium chloride

triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
945614-32-4

triethyloxonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

A

diethyl ether
60-29-7

diethyl ether

B

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

C

1-hexyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate
945614-40-4

1-hexyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 80℃; for 3h;A n/a
B n/a
C 93%
ethyl o-(N-methylcarbamoyl)phenyl sulphoxide

ethyl o-(N-methylcarbamoyl)phenyl sulphoxide

A

2-methyl-1,2-benzisothiazole-3(2H)-one
2527-66-4

2-methyl-1,2-benzisothiazole-3(2H)-one

B

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With thionyl chloride In tetrachloromethane for 5h; Heating;A 92%
B n/a
[2,2-Dichloro-1-(4-chloro-benzoylamino)-vinyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester

[2,2-Dichloro-1-(4-chloro-benzoylamino)-vinyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

2-Chloro-5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-dichloromethylene-3H-[1,4,2]oxazaphosphole 2-oxide

2-Chloro-5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-dichloromethylene-3H-[1,4,2]oxazaphosphole 2-oxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphorus pentachloride at 110 - 120℃; for 5.5h;A n/a
B 92%
N-methyl-N-(2,2-dimethyl-3-chloro-3-ethoxypropyl)methanesulfonamide
139535-54-9

N-methyl-N-(2,2-dimethyl-3-chloro-3-ethoxypropyl)methanesulfonamide

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

N-methyl-N-(2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)methanesulfonamide
139535-59-4

N-methyl-N-(2,2-dimethyl-3-oxopropyl)methanesulfonamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
under 9 Torr; Heating;A 91%
B 79%
diethyl phosphorylchloridite
589-57-1

diethyl phosphorylchloridite

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate
17640-25-4

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

ethyl phosphonochloridate
74813-30-2

ethyl phosphonochloridate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron(III) chloride at 95 - 110℃; for 1.5h;A 90%
B 38%
diethyl phosphorylchloridite
589-57-1

diethyl phosphorylchloridite

Ethyl dichloro-(ethoxy)-acetate
6957-89-7

Ethyl dichloro-(ethoxy)-acetate

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

ethyl phosphonochloridate
67538-60-7

ethyl phosphonochloridate

C

diethyl chlorophosphate
814-49-3

diethyl chlorophosphate

D

ethyl ethylphosphonochloridate
5284-10-6

ethyl ethylphosphonochloridate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron(III) chloride at 95 - 110℃; for 1.5h;A 90%
B 58%
C n/a
D n/a
fluorophosphoric acid diethyl ester
371-22-2

fluorophosphoric acid diethyl ester

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate
17640-25-4

methyl 2,2-dichloro-2-methoxyacetate

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

ethyl phosphonofluoridate
67538-58-3

ethyl phosphonofluoridate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron(III) chloride at 95 - 110℃; for 1.5h;A 90%
B 45%
fluorophosphoric acid diethyl ester
371-22-2

fluorophosphoric acid diethyl ester

Ethyl dichloro-(ethoxy)-acetate
6957-89-7

Ethyl dichloro-(ethoxy)-acetate

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

ethyl phosphonofluoridate
67538-59-4

ethyl phosphonofluoridate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With iron(III) chloride at 95 - 110℃; for 1.5h;A 90%
B 50%
[2,2-Dichloro-1-(4-methyl-benzoylamino)-vinyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester

[2,2-Dichloro-1-(4-methyl-benzoylamino)-vinyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

2-Chloro-3-dichloromethylene-5-p-tolyl-3H-[1,4,2]oxazaphosphole 2-oxide

2-Chloro-3-dichloromethylene-5-p-tolyl-3H-[1,4,2]oxazaphosphole 2-oxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphorus pentachloride at 110 - 120℃; for 5.5h;A n/a
B 90%
2,3,3,3-tetrachloro-2-<amino>propionitrile
94703-39-6

2,3,3,3-tetrachloro-2-propionitrile

triethyl phosphite
122-52-1

triethyl phosphite

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

diethyl chlorophosphate
814-49-3

diethyl chlorophosphate

C

3,3-dichloro-2-<amino>acrylonitrile
94703-45-4

3,3-dichloro-2-acrylonitrile

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In benzene for 1h; Heating;A n/a
B 90%
C 25%
N-(pentafluorophenyl)carbonimidoyl dichloride
64317-34-6

N-(pentafluorophenyl)carbonimidoyl dichloride

triethylamine
121-44-8

triethylamine

A

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

B

N,N-diethyl-N-pentafluorophenylchloroformamidine
120672-75-5

N,N-diethyl-N-pentafluorophenylchloroformamidine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In diethyl ether at 20℃; for 6h;A n/a
B 90%
1-methyl-1H-imidazole
616-47-7

1-methyl-1H-imidazole

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride
65039-09-0

1-ethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In ethanol at 35℃; for 10h; Wavelength; UV-irradiation;100%
79%
In acetonitrile at 70℃; for 168h;71%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

tin(IV) chloride
7646-78-8

tin(IV) chloride

tetraethyltin
597-64-8

tetraethyltin

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With magnesium In diethyl ether; toluene at 50℃; Inert atmosphere; Flow reactor;99.4%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

N,N-dipropylcarbamothioate sodium salt
62806-88-6

N,N-dipropylcarbamothioate sodium salt

S-ethyl N,N-di-n-propylthiocarbamate
759-94-4

S-ethyl N,N-di-n-propylthiocarbamate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 80℃; for 0.25h; in ultrasonic field;99.1%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

methyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(hydroxy)amino)acetate

methyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(hydroxy)amino)acetate

methyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(ethoxy)amino)acetate

methyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(ethoxy)amino)acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With triethylamine In dichloromethane at 0℃; for 3h;99%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

vanillin
121-33-5

vanillin

phenol, 4-(ethoxymethyl)-2-methoxy-
13184-86-6

phenol, 4-(ethoxymethyl)-2-methoxy-

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium tetrahydroborate In ethanol at 30 - 40℃; for 4h;98.56%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

sodium hexamethylenethiocarbamate

sodium hexamethylenethiocarbamate

S-ethyl N-hexamethylenethiocarbamate
2212-67-1

S-ethyl N-hexamethylenethiocarbamate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 70℃; for 0.333333h; in ultrasonic field;98.4%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

m-acetamide aniline
102-28-3

m-acetamide aniline

m-acetylamino-N,N-diethylanilne
6375-46-8

m-acetylamino-N,N-diethylanilne

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With ammonium hydroxide In water at 90 - 98℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 18h; pH=5 - 7; Temperature; Large scale;98%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

sodium salt of diethylthiocarbamic acid
21055-93-6

sodium salt of diethylthiocarbamic acid

S-ethyl N,N-diethylthiocarbamate
2941-55-1

S-ethyl N,N-diethylthiocarbamate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 80℃; for 0.166667h; in ultrasonic field;97.8%
sodium benzoate
532-32-1

sodium benzoate

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

benzoic acid ethyl ester
93-89-0

benzoic acid ethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetrabutylammomium bromide In toluene at 40 - 70℃; under 3000.3 - 4500.45 Torr; for 1h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;97.63%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

sodium pentamethylenethiocarbamate
56368-46-8

sodium pentamethylenethiocarbamate

piperidine-1-carbothioic acid S-ethyl ester
6961-73-5

piperidine-1-carbothioic acid S-ethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 70℃; for 0.25h; in ultrasonic field;97.3%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

4-methyl-2-pentanone
108-10-1

4-methyl-2-pentanone

3-diethylaminophenol
91-68-9

3-diethylaminophenol

N,N-diethyl-3-ethoxyaniline
1864-92-2

N,N-diethyl-3-ethoxyaniline

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide; sodium carbonate97.1%
tetraethoxy orthosilicate
78-10-4

tetraethoxy orthosilicate

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

diethyldiethoxysilane
5021-93-2

diethyldiethoxysilane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With magnesium at 50 - 100℃;97%
With magnesium at 60℃; for 1h; Temperature;94%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

diisopropylamine
108-18-9

diisopropylamine

N-ethyl-N,N-diisopropylamine
7087-68-5

N-ethyl-N,N-diisopropylamine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With lithium chloride; zinc(II) chloride at 190℃; under 16501.7 Torr; for 10h; Catalytic behavior; Temperature; Pressure; Time; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;96.7%
7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-chroman-4-one
17771-33-4

7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-chroman-4-one

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

2,2-dimethyl-7-ethoxy-4-chromanone
76348-94-2

2,2-dimethyl-7-ethoxy-4-chromanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate; potassium iodide In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 80℃; for 5h;96%
6-bromo-naphthalen-2-ol
15231-91-1

6-bromo-naphthalen-2-ol

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

2-ethoxy-6-bromo-naphthalene
66217-19-4

2-ethoxy-6-bromo-naphthalene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium carbonate In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 100℃; for 3.5h;96%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

3-amino-4-methoxyacetanilide
6375-47-9

3-amino-4-methoxyacetanilide

3-acetylamino-6-methoxy-N,N-diethylaniline
19433-93-3

3-acetylamino-6-methoxy-N,N-diethylaniline

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide In water at 80 - 97℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 22.5h; pH=6.5 - 7;96%
chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

triphenylphosphine
603-35-0

triphenylphosphine

ethyltriphenylphosphonium chloride
896-33-3

ethyltriphenylphosphonium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetone at 150℃; under 9000.9 Torr; for 40h; Solvent; Temperature; Pressure; Autoclave;95.23%
In acetonitrile for 10h; Inert atmosphere; Reflux;83.2%
picoline
108-89-4

picoline

chloroethane
75-00-3

chloroethane

1-Ethyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride
105757-96-8

1-Ethyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile at 80℃; for 5h;95%
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