Tin tetrachloride is a colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Tin tetrachloride is soluble in cold water,alcohol,carbon disulfide, and oil of turpentine, that is decomposed by hot water to form hydrochloric acid with the evolution of heat. Tin tetrachloride is corrosive to metals and tissue.Used as a conductive coating and a sugar bleach,and in drugs, ceramics, soaps,and blue printing.
Tin (IV) chloride appears as white crystals with a strong pungent chlorine odour. On heating,
tin (IV) chloride decomposition emits acrid fumes. At room temperature, it is colourless
and releases fumes on contact with air, giving a stinging odour. Stannic chloride was
used as a chemical weapon during World War I. It is also used in the glass container
industry for making an external coating that toughens the glass. Stannic chloride is used
in chemical reactions with fuming (90%) nitric acid for the selective nitration of activated
aromatic rings in the presence of unactivated ones. Tin (IV) chloride reacts violently with
water or moist air to produce corrosive hydrogen chloride. Tin (IV) chloride reacts with
turpentine, alcohols, and amines, causing fire and explosion hazard. It attacks many metals,
some forms of plastic, rubber, and coatings.
Tin(IV) chloride is a mordant for dying fabrics; a stabilizer for perfume in
soap; used in weighting silk; in ceramic coatings; in manufacturing blue print
papers; and to produce fuchsin. Also, tin(IV) chloride is used in preparing
many organotin compounds.
CORROSIVE and/or TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat that will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
SnCl4 fumes in moist air due to formation of a hydrate. Fractionate it in a ground glass still and store it in the absence of air. Possible impurities are SO2 and HCl [Baudler in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 729 1963]. It forms a solid pentahydrate [10026-06-9] which smells of HCl and is obtained when the anhydrous salt is dissolved in a small volume of H2O. Also reflux it with clean mercury or P2O5 for several hours, then distil it under (reduced) N2 pressure into a receiver containing P2O5. Finally redistil it. Alternatively, distil it from Sn metal under vacuum in an all-glass system and seal off in large ampoules. SnCl4 is available commercially as 1M solutions in CH2Cl2 or hexane. HARMFUL VAPOURS.
Air & Water Reactions
Fumes in moist air. Reacts with water to form Hydrochloric Acid in dense white fumes [Merck 11th ed. 1989].
EXCEPT FOR ACETIC ANHYDRIDE (UN1715), THAT IS FLAMMABLE, some of these materials may burn, but none ignite readily. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases and runoff. Flammable/toxic gases may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
Acidic salts, such as STANNIC CHLORIDE, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions (ethylene oxide polymerization). Combination of the chloride with turpentine is strongly exothermic, and may lead to ignition, [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 7, 446].
Tin(IV) chloride is prepared by reacting tin or tin(II) chloride with chlorine:
Sn + 2Cl2 → SnCl4
SnCl2 + Cl2 → SnCl4