A clear colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. Flash point 10°F. Less dense (6.2 lb / gal) than water. Vapors heavier than air. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion.
ChEBI: A primary aliphatic amine that is butane substituted by an amino group at position 1.
n-Butylamine is one of the four isomeric amines of butane, the others being sec-butylamine,
tert-butylamine, and isobutylamine. It is a colourless to yellow liquid and is highly
flammable. It is stable and incompatible with oxidising agents, aluminium, copper, copper
alloys, and acids. n-Butylamine finds its uses in the manufacture of pesticides (such as
thiocarbazides), pharmaceuticals, and emulsifiers. It is also a precursor for the manufacture
of N,N′-dibutylthiourea, a rubber vulcanisation accelerator, and n-butylbenzenesulphonamide,
a plasticiser of nylon.
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Dissolves in water with evolution of heat. The resulting solutions are basic.
N-BUTYL AMINE reacts violently with strong oxidizing agents and acids. Attacks copper and copper compounds [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980 p. 123]. Reacts with hypochlorites to give N-chloroamines which may be explosive when isolated [Bretherick 1979 p. 108].
Intermediate for pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs, rubber chemicals, emulsifying agents, insecticides, synthetic tanning agents.
colourless to yellow liquid
Dry it with solid KOH, K2CO3, LiAlH4, CaH2 or MgSO4, then reflux it with, and fractionally distil it from P2O5, CaH2, CaO or BaO. Further purification is by precipitation as the hydrochloride, m 213-213.5o, from ethereal solution by bubbling HCl gas into it. This is re-precipitated three times from EtOH by adding ether, followed by liberation of the free amine using excess strong base. The amine is extracted into ether, which is separated, dried with solid KOH, the ether removed by evaporation and then the amine is distilled. It is stored in a desiccator over solid NaOH [Bunnett & Davis J Am Chem Soc 82 665 1960, Lycan et al. Org Synth Coll Vol II 319 1943]. [Beilstein 4 IV 540.] SKIN IRRITANT.
Inhalation causes irritation, nausea, vomiting, headache, faintness, severe coughing and chest pains; can cause lung edema. Ingestion causes severe irritation of mouth and stomach. Contact with eyes causes severe irritation and edema of the cornea. Contact with skin causes burns; absorption through skin may cause nausea, vomiting and shock.