Nicotinic acid. It is a precursor of the coenzymes NAD and NADP. Widely distributed in nature; appreciable amounts are found in liver , fish, yeast and cereal grains. Dietary deficiency is associated with pellagra. The term “niacin” has also been applied
Crystallise the acid from *benzene, EtOH or H2O. It sublimes without decomposition. [McElvain Org Synth Coll Vol I 385 1941, Beilstein 22 III/IV 439, 22/2 V 57.]
antihyperlipidemic, vitamin (enzyme cofactor)
Niacor (Upsher Smith); Niaspan
(KOS); Nicolar (Sanofi Aventis); Wampocap (Medpointe).
Niacin USP granular is used for food fortification, as dietary supplement and as an intermediate of pharmaceuticals. WWW Link
- This product is a type of vitamin supplement, and it is called vitamin PP along with nicotinamide. It is used to treat pellagra and as a vasodilator, and it is widely used as an additive for food and feed.
- A medicine intermediate, used in the production of isoniazid, nicotinamide, nikethamide, inositol nicotinate, etc.
- Nicotinic acid is an important factor in delivering hydrogen and fighting pellagra in organisms; it helps maintain skin and nerve health and stimulate digestion.
- Coenzyme and cofactor; pyridine nucleotide coenzyme; decreases the amount of low density lipoproteins in the liver and slows the fibrosis of apolipoproteins.
- Biochemistry research, a nutritional component of tissue culture mediums.
Air & Water Reactions
ChEBI: A pyridinemonocarboxylic acid that is pyridine in which the hydrogen at position 3 is replaced by a carboxy group.
Nicotinic acid is incompatible with strong oxidizers. Nicotinic acid is also incompatible with sodium nitrite.
Flash point data for Nicotinic acid are not available; however, Nicotinic acid is probably combustible.
Precisely take a sample of 300mg and dissolve in 50ml water. Add a couple drops of phenolphthalein solution (TS-167) and titrate using 0.1mol/L sodium hydroxide. Conduct a control experiment at the same time. Every Ml0.1mol/L sodium hydroxide is equivalent to 12.31mg nicotinic acid (C6H5NO2).
Add 2 portions of 2, 4-Dinitrochlorobenzene to the sample and process into powder. Place 10mg of the powder in a test tube, gently heat until melted, and continue to heat for a couple of seconds. Cool and add 3ml potassium hydroxide ethanol solution (TS-190). The solution should be dark red.
Dissolve 50mg of the sample solution in 20ml water, use 0.1mol/L sodium hydroxide to neutralize until a litmus paper reads neutral, and add 3ml copper sulfate solution (TS-78). Blue precipitate should begin forming slowly.
Dry the sample for 1h at 105℃ and collect its mineral oil dispersions. The peak wavelength of its infrared absorption spectrum should resemble the standard reference sample formulated using the same method.
Prepare an aqueous solution of the sample with a density of 20μg/ml, measure its absorbance at the wavelengths 237nm and 262nm in a 1cm pool, using water as a blank control. A237/A262 should be 0.35～0.39.
Niamax(R) is a brand name for a sustained release Niacin tablet, which is used to reduce cholesterol. Contact
Odorless white crystalline powder with a feebly acid taste. pH (saturated aqueous solution) 2.7. pH (1.3% solution) 3-3.5.
LD50 7.0g/kg (Large mice, oral).
ADI has no special regulations (EEC, 1990).
Nicotinic acid exists naturally in grain germs, meats and peanuts. It can also be synthesized artificially through the liquid phase method (potassium permanganate oxidation and nitric acid oxidation) and gas phase method (ozone oxidation, ammonia oxidation and air oxidation).
In the gas phase ammonia oxidation process, add 3-methyl pyridine, air and ammonia into the fluidized bed reactor and catalyze the reaction at 290～360℃,V2O5 to produce nicotinonitrile; then hydrolyze in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution at 160℃ to produce sodium nicotinate; finally, add hydrochloric acid to acidify, creating nicotinic acid. In the potassium permanganate oxidation method, add potassium permanganate gradually at 80℃ to a mixture of 3-methyl pyridine and water, and then continue to mix for 30min at 85～90℃. Distill to collect and reuse the unreacted 3-methyl pyridine and filter away the produced manganese dioxide. Adjust the PH of the resulting nicotinic acid solution to 3.8～4.0 using hydrochloric acid, cool to 30℃ crystals, and filter to obtain crude nicotinic acid. Dissolve the crude nicotinic acid in hot water, add activated charcoal to eliminate the color, filter, cool, and obtain the crystalline end product. Yield is approximately 86%.
- 6- hydroxyquinoline method
Add sulfuric acid and quinoline into a reaction kettle and mix while maintaining heat at 150～160℃ for 5h. Then with the temperature maintained at 180～220℃, slowly drop in nitric acid and the sulfuric acid mixture over the course of 36～40h. While maintaining the temperature, mix for 2～3h to obtain a nicotinic acid solution and add water to dilute the solution. Use 30％～33％ NaOH solution to neutralize the PH to 8～9. Cool and filter away the sodium sulfate and sodium nitrate crystals, add copper sulfate solution to the filtered liquid, and mix and heat to yield copper nicotinate precipitation. Cool, filter and add the copper nicotinate to an adequate amount of water, drop in NaOH solution until PH>9 and the liquid is no longer blue, and filter away the produced cupric oxide. Add a small amount of sodium sulfide solution to remove traces of copper and iron until the solution no longer produces black precipitate, and then filter. Use hydrochloric acid to adjust the PH of the filtered liquid to 3.5～3.9, filter to yield crystals as crude nicotinic acid. Dissolve the crude product in 12 times the amount of distilled water, add activated charcoal to eliminate the color, filter, cool, and obtain the crystalline end product. Yield is 35％～39％.
- 2-methyl-5-ethyl pyridine method
With 2-methyl-5-ethyl pyridine as the raw ingredient, oxidize with nitic acid under high pressure and high temperatures, then decarboxylate to yield nicotinic acid.
White crystal or crystalline powder, odorless or has a slight odor, slight sour taste. Melting point is 234-237℃. Easily soluble in hot water, hot ethanol, alkaline water, propylene glycol, and chloroform. Slightly soluble in water and ethanol; 100ml room temperature water can dissolve 1.6g. Insoluble in ether and ester solutions. The PH of 1% aqueous solution is 3.0-4.0. Stable in heat, acidity and alkalinity.
Niacin USP is used for food fortification, as dietary supplement and as an intermediate of pharmaceuticals. WWW Link
Niacin feed grade is used as vitamin for poultry, swines, ruminants, fish, dogs and cats, etc. It is also used as intermediate for nicotinic acid derivatives and technical applications. WWW Link