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Cas Database




  • Product Name:Benzene

  • CAS Number: 71-43-2

  • EINECS:200-753-7

  • Molecular Weight:78.1136

  • Molecular Formula: C6H6

  • HS Code:2902.20

  • Mol File:71-43-2.mol

Synonyms:1,3,5-Cyclohexatriene;Benzol;Benzole;Coal naphtha;Cyclohexatriene;NSC 67315;Phene;Phenylhydride;Pyrobenzol;Pyrobenzole;[6]Annulene;crude benzene;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):FlammableF,ToxicT

  • Hazard Codes: F:Flammable;

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapourH315 Causes skin irritation H319 Causes serious eye irritation H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways H340 May cause genetic defects H350 May cause cancer

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention. In case of skin contact Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Refer for medical attention . In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention . Dizziness, excitation, pallor, followed by flushing, weakness, headache, breathlessness, chest constriction, nausea, and vomiting. Coma and possible death. (USCG, 1999) Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Benzene and Related Compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapors. Use water spray, dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool. Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. (USCG, 1999) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Remove all ignition sources. Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus. Do NOT wash away into sewer. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. For spills on water, contain with booms or barriers, use surface acting agents to thicken spilled materials. Remove trapped materials with suction hoses.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Fireproof. Separated from food and feedstuffs, oxidants and halogens. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.Keep in well closed containers in a cool place and away from fire.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesNIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concentration.Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hour Time-Weighted Average: 0.1 ppm.Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Minute Short-Term Exposure Limit: 1 ppm.Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 2342 Articles be found

Tausz,v. Putnoky

, p. 1579 (1919)


, p. 571,572 (1933)


, p. 1114 (1957)

Photochemistry of Benzene Isomers. 1. Fulvene and 3,4-Dimethylenecyclobutene

Kent, Jay E.,Harman, Peter J.,O'Dwyer, Michael F.

, p. 2726 - 2730 (1981)

The photochemical behavior of the benzene isomer fulvene is investigated at various excitation wavelengths.The only observable photoproduct is benzene, produced in high quantum yield below about 275-nm excitation.The quantum yield is dependent upon excitation wavelength indicating the photoisomerization requires vibrational activation.Quenching by various added gases is efficient and suggests that the photochemistry does not invove triplet-state or free-radical mechanisms.Another isomer, 3,4-dimethylenecyclobutene, also shows photochemical behavior upon excitation at 240 and 215 nm to produce a polymeric material.


, p. 5398,5400 (1950)

Alkylation of benzene by alkyl cations. Stability of the tert-butyl benzenium ion

Sharma, D. K. Sen,Ikuta, S.,Kebarle, P.

, p. 2325 - 2331 (1982)

The kinetics and eqilibria of the gas phase reaction tert-C4H9+ + C6H6 = tert-C4H9C6H6+ were studied with a high ion source pressure pulsed electron beam mass spectrometer.Equilibria could be observed in the temperature range 285-325 K, van't Hoff plots of the equilibrium constants led to ΔH10 = -22+/-2 kcal mol-1 and ΔS10 = -49+/-5 cal K-1 mol-1.The rate constants at 305 K were k1f = 1.5*10-28 molecules-2 cm6 s-1 and k1r = 2.9*10-19 molecules-1 cm3 s-1. tert-C4H9C6H6+ dissociates easily via not only because of the low dissociation energy (-ΔH10) but also because of the unusually favorable entropy (-ΔS10).The occurence of transalkylation reactions: tert-C4H9C6H6+ + alkylbenzene = tert-C4H9 alkylbenzene+ + benzene, was discovered in the present work.

Connor et al.

, p. 152 (1955)


, p. 1334,1336 (1959)

Pyrolysis of Styrene. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Equilibrium Styrene Benzene + Acetylene

Grela, M. A.,Amorebieta, V. T.,Colussi, A. J.

, p. 9861 - 9865 (1992)

The thermal unimolecular decomposition of styrene into benzene and acetylene, C6H5CH=CH2 -> C6H6 + HCCH (1), was investigated in a low pressure (ca. 10 mTorr) flow reactor by on-line mass spectrometry between 1180 and 1350 K.Measured rates can be calculated, via RRKM extrapolation, from the expression log (K1, s-1) = 14.38 - 17076/T, which was derived by detailed balance from high-pressure (ca. 50 Torr) low-temperature (878-973 K) kinetic data for the reverse reaction.This value of E1 = 77.9 kcal/mol allows for the generation of vinylidene, H2C=C:; the carbene isomer of acetylene, as a primary product of the title reaction.A non-radical process involving the rate-determining extrusion of H2C=C: from a -7-methylene cyclohepta-2,4-diene intermediate in equilibrium with styrene is consistent with kinetic and thermochemical considerations.


, (1960)

Kinetic Parameters for the Unimolecular Dissociation of Styrene Ion

Dunbar, Robert C.

, p. 3283 - 3286 (1990)

Time-resolved photodissociation measurements of the laser-induced fragmentation of styrene molecular ion have been carried out at 355 nm.Taking thermal energy content into account, a unimolecular dissociation rate of 6.3 * 103 s-1 at an internal energy of 3.66 eV was derived.The new measurement has been combined with previous data from photodissociation and photoionization to give a dissociation rate-energy curve spanning 2 decades of rate values.By RRKM fitting to this curve, unimolecular kinetic parameters E0 = 2.43 +/- 0.05 eV and ΔS% (1000K) = -3.9 +/- 1 cal mol-1 K-1 were derived.The conclusion that this dissociation proceeds through a rate-limiting thight activated complex at E0 = 2.43 eV was affirmed.


, p. 1156 (1969)


, p. 1563,1568 (1962)

Probing ensemble effects in surface reactions. 3. Cyclohexane adsorption on clean and bismuth-covered Pt(III)


, p. 826 - 835 (1989)

The adsorption and chemistry of cyclohexane on clean and Bi-covered Pt(111) surfaces have been studied with thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS), deuterium labeling, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thermal experiments show that, on clean Pt(111), cyclohexane is adsorbed in three molecular states with desorption temperatures of approx. 236 (monolayer), approx. 181 (second monolayer), and approx.154 K (multilayer). There is little isotopic exchange in the molecularly desorbing cyclohexane. Benzene is formed at approx. 236 K on the clean Pt(111) surface is a product of the dehydrogenation of adsorbed cyclohexane. This process is 13-fold slower for perdeuterated cyclohexane. An analysis of quantitative XPS data and the effect of Bi poisoning on the chemisorption of cyclohexane shows that an ensemble of about five Pt atoms is necessary to chemisorb C6H12. The dehydrogenation of adsorbed cyclohexane is poisoned at very low bismuth coverages (θ$-Βi$/0.1) according to mechanism dominated by steric, site-blocking effects.



, p. 264 (1957)


Infrared multiphoton dissociation of styrene ions by low-power continuous CO2 laser irradiation

Dunbar, Robert C.,Zaniewski, Rebecca C.

, p. 5069 - 5075 (1992)

The kinetics of infrared multiphoton dissociation of styrene ions under collision-free conditions in the ion cyclotron resonance ion trap were studied as a function of the intensity of the cw CO2 laser at powers up to 6 W.Following the beginning of irradiation an induction time was observed.Followed by dissociation according to a first-order rate constant.The kinetics could be fitted to a random-walk simulation of a master-equation model, in the same way as previous studies.A matrix-algebra solution of the master-equation model is described which gave a better fit with greater computational convenience.From the modeling the rate of radiation of infrared photons (assumed to be at 940 cm-1) from the ions was estimated as 350 s-1 at an ion internal energy of around 3 eV.When the dissociation threshold E, was treated as an unknown it was found that master-equation modeling of the kinetic results could give an estimate of Et, but with large uncertainty.Application of simple thermal kinetic theory via Tolman's theorem gave good qualitative understanding of the results, and predicted the intensity dependence of the dissociation rate with a deviation of about 30percent.



, p. 5342 (1958)


Bragin et al.

, (1974)


, p. 120 (1966)


, p. 998 (1953)

Kinetic Energy Release in Thermal Ion-Molecule Reactions: Single Charge-Transfer Reactions of V2+ and Ta2+ with Benzene

Gord, James R.,Freiser, Ben S.,Buckner, Steven W.

, p. 8274 - 8279 (1991)

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) has been used to study the single charge-transfer reactions of V2+ and Ta2+ with benzene under thermal conditions.Thermal charge-transfer rate constants of 2.0 x 10-9 and 1.2 x 10-9 cm3 molecule-1s-1 were measured for V2+ and Ta2+, respectively.The total kinetic energy of the product ions was determined to be 1.91 +/- 0.50 eV for the V2+ case and 2.82 +/- 0.50 eV for the Ta2+ case.These results and a previous study of the Nb2+ - benzene single charge-transfer system suggest a simple long-distance electron-transfer mechanism proceeding by ionization of the 1a2u orbital of benzene with significant internal excitation of the nascent C6H6+ product.

Rozengart et al.

, (1974)

Chemical nuclear polarization in the oxidation of phenylhydrazine by 1,4- benzoquinone or tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone


, p. 313 - 316 (1976)



, p. 241 (1898)

Methane chemistry in the hot supersonic nozzle


, p. 7025 - 7030 (2001)

The combination of pyrolysis and expansion to a supersonic molecular beam was shown to be very effective in conversion of pure CH4 to heavier hydrocarbons. Pure CH4 conversion reached 70% when it reacted in a hot (1000°-1150°C) supersonic nozzle made of quartz with 100 μ dia orifice. Hydrogen, acetylene, benzene, methyl, and propargyl radicals were the major products in the distribution. CH4 conversion rate was not improved with the addition of O2, NO, or CO2 as O2 reacted primarily with surface carbon formed by CH4 decomposition. No oxygen containing hydrocarbon derivatives were observed. The lifetime of the nozzle was longer than pure CH4 as a reactant resulting from surface carbon removal by oxygen. The mechanism involved pyrolytic rather than catalytic surface generation of free hydrocarbon radicals with subsequent coupling to heavier hydrocarbon products prior to desorption to the gas phase and expansion to the supersonic beam.

Volpin et al.

, p. 33,37 (1960)


, p. 81 (1979)


Isagulyants, G. V.,Rozengart, M. I.,Dubinskii, Yu. G.,Antonova, S. Yu.

, (1981)


Facile formation of benzene from a novel cyclohexane derivative

Liu, Xiadong,Zhang, Guangtao,Verkade, John G.

, p. 4449 - 4451 (2001)

Upon acidification, benzene forms at room temperature from the novel 1,3,5-cis-trisubstituted cyclohexane wherein the substituents are the azido phosphine cage moieties N3P(MeNCH2CH2)3N. The dominant reaction in the decomposition of this unusually thermally stable intermediate in the presence of HA is the formation of nitrogen and the salt [H2N=P(MeNCH2CH2)3N]A in addition to benzene. Evidence for a transannulated cage intermediate is presented.


, p. 3195 (1958)

Reaction of Hydrogen Atom with Benzene: Kinetics and Mechanism

Nicovich, J. M.,Ravishankara, A. R.

, p. 2534 - 2541 (1984)

The rate coefficients for the reactions H + C6H6 -> products (k1) (1), H + C6D6 -> products (k2) (2), D + C6H6 -> products (k3) (3), and D + C6D6 -> products (k4) (4) have been measured in the temperature range of 298-1000 K by using the pulsed photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique.On the basis of the obtained kinetic information, it is shown that the primary path in all these reactions is addition of the atom to the benzene ring form cyclohexadienyl radical.The rate coefficient for the thermal decomposition of the cyclohexadienyl radical has also been measured.When the rate coefficients for the formation and decomposition of the cyclohexadienyl radical are used, the standard heat of formation of cyclohexadienyl radical at 298 K is calculated to be 45.7 kcal/mol.The measured values of k1-k4 are compared with the results of previous investigations.Most of the observed kinetic behavior in these reactions has been explained on the basis of the addition-decomposition reaction scheme.



, p. 1222 (1954)



, p. 1022 (1914)

Synergies of surface-interface multiple active sites over Al-Zr oxide solid solution supported nickel catalysts for enhancing the hydrodeoxygenation of anisole

Fan, Guoli,Li, Feng,Lin, Yanjun,Yang, Lan,Zhang, Yaowen

, (2022/01/19)

Currently, the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of oxygen-containing compounds derived from biomass to highly valuable chemicals or hydrocarbon bio-fuels is attracting more and more attention. Concerning the design and synthesis of high-performance supported metal catalysts for HDO, the efficient deposition/immobilization of active metal species on supports, as well as the construction of the favorable properties of supports, is quite necessary. In this work, we fabricated series of aluminum-zirconium oxide solid solution supported Ni-based catalysts by a simple surfactant-assisted homogeneous coprecipitation and applied them in the HDO of anisole. Various structural characterizations showed that surface-interface properties of Ni-based catalysts (i.e., surface acidity, defective structures, and metal-support interactions) could be finely tuned by adjusting the amount of Al introduced into Al-Zr oxide solid solutions, thus profoundly governing their catalytic HDO activities. It was demonstrated that the introduction of an appropriate amount of Al could not only enhance surface acidity and promote the formation of defective Zr-Ov-Al structures (Ov: oxygen vacancy) but also facilitate the generation of interfacial Niδ+ species bound to the support. Over the Ni-based catalyst bearing an Al2O3:ZrO2 mass ratio of 5:2, a high cyclohexane yield of ~77.4% was attained at 230 °C and 1.0 MPa initial hydrogen pressure. The high catalytic HDO efficiency was revealed to be correlated with the catalytic synergy between Ni0 and adjacent interfacial Niδ+ species, together with the promotion of neighboring defective oxygen vacancies and acidic sites, which contributed to the enhanced activation of the methoxy group in anisole and reaction intermediate and thus greatly improved HDO activity. The present findings offer a new and promising guidance for constructing high-performance metal-based catalysts via a rational surface-interface engineering.

Selective catalytic synthesis of bio-based high value chemical of benzoic acid from xylan with Co2MnO4@MCM-41 catalyst

Fan, Minghui,He, Yuting,Li, Quanxin,Luo, Yuehui,Yang, Mingyu,Zhang, Yanhua,Zhu, Lijuan

, (2021/12/20)

The efficient synthesis of bio-based chemicals using renewable carbon resources is of great significance to promote sustainable chemistry and develop green economy. This work aims to demonstrate that benzoic acid, an important high added value chemical in petrochemical industry, can be selectively synthesized using xylan (a typical model compound of hemicellulose). This novel controllable transformation process was achieved by selective catalytic pyrolysis of xylan and subsequent catalytic oxidation. The highest benzoic acid selectivity of 88.3 % with 90.5 % conversion was obtained using the 10wt%Co2MnO4@MCM-41 catalyst under the optimized reaction conditions (80 °C, 4 h). Based on the study of the model compounds and catalyst's characterizations, the reaction pathways for the catalytic transformation of xylan to bio-based benzoic acid were proposed.

Wavelength-Specific Product Desorption as a Key to Raising Nitrile Yield of Primary Alcohol Ammoxidation over Illuminated Pd Nanoparticles

Han, Pengfei,Tang, Cheng,Sarina, Sarina,Waclawik, Eric R.,Du, Aijun,Bottle, Steven E.,Fang, Yanfen,Huang, Yingping,Li, Kun,Zhu, Huai-Yong

, p. 2280 - 2289 (2022/02/14)

Research on visible-light photocatalysts of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has focused on increasing the reactant conversion by light-excited charges (electrons and positively charged holes). However, light irradiation can accelerate catalysis by other mechanisms. Here, we report that 650 nm wavelength irradiation of 0.75 W·cm-2 significantly increases nitrile yield of ammoxidation of primary aromatic alcohols with an ammonium salt over supported Pd NPs at 80 °C in air. We found that the desorption of the nitrile product from the catalyst is the rate-determining step; the irradiation promotes not only alcohol oxidation and subsequent aldehyde cyanation over the Pd NPs but also the nitrile desorption selectively via resonance energy transfer to achieve a high nitrile yield. This new mechanism provides a knob for the exquisite control of catalytic reaction pathways for ecofriendly synthesis.

One-step conversion of lignin-derived alkylphenols to light arenes by co-breaking of C-O and C-C bonds

Di, Yali,Li, Guangyu,Li, Zhiqin,Liu, Weiwei,Qiu, Zegang,Ren, Xiaoxiong,Wang, Ying

supporting information, p. 2710 - 2721 (2022/02/21)

The conversion of lignin-derived alkylphenols to light arenes by a one-step reaction is still a challenge. A 'shortcut' route to transform alkylphenols via the co-breaking of C-O and C-C bonds is presented in this paper. The catalytic transformation of 4-ethylphenol in the presence of H2 was used to test the breaking of C-O and C-C bonds. It was found that the conversion of 4-ethylphenol was nearly 100%, and the main products were light arenes (benzene and toluene) and ethylbenzene under the catalysis of Cr2O3/Al2O3. The conversion of 4-ethylphenol and the selectivity of the products were significantly influenced by the reaction temperature. The selectivity for light arenes reached 55.7% and the selectivity for overall arenes was as high as 84.0% under suitable reaction conditions. Such results confirmed that the co-breaking of the C-O and C-C bonds of 4-ethylphenol on a single catalyst by one step was achieved with high efficiency. The adsorption configuration of the 4-ethylphenol molecule on the catalyst played an important role in the breaking of the C-O and C-C bonds. Two special adsorption configurations of 4-ethylphenol, including a parallel adsorption and a vertical adsorption, might exist in the reaction process, as revealed by DFT calculations. They were related to the breaking of C-O and C-C bonds, respectively. A path for the hydrogenation reaction of 4-ethylphenol on Cr2O3/Al2O3 was proposed. Furthermore, the co-breaking of the C-O and C-C bonds was also achieved in the hydrogenation reactions of several alkylphenols. This journal is

Few-Atom Pt Ensembles Enable Efficient Catalytic Cyclohexane Dehydrogenation for Hydrogen Production

Cai, Xiangbin,Deng, Yuchen,Diao, Jiangyong,Dong, Chunyang,Guo, Jinqiu,Guo, Yu,Jia, Zhimin,Jiang, Zheng,Li, Chengyu,Li, Jun,Liu, Hongyang,Liu, Jin-Cheng,Ma, Ding,Wang, Meng,Wang, Ning,Xiao, Hai,Xie, Jinglin,Xu, Bingjun,Zhang, Hongbo

supporting information, p. 3535 - 3542 (2022/02/16)

Identification of catalytic active sites is pivotal in the design of highly effective heterogeneous metal catalysts, especially for structure-sensitive reactions. Downsizing the dimension of the metal species on the catalyst increases the dispersion, which is maximized when the metal exists as single atoms, namely, single-atom catalysts (SACs). SACs have been reported to be efficient for various catalytic reactions. We show here that the Pt SACs, although with the highest metal atom utilization efficiency, are totally inactive in the cyclohexane (C6H12) dehydrogenation reaction, an important reaction that could enable efficient hydrogen transportation. Instead, catalysts enriched with fully exposed few-atom Pt ensembles, with a Pt-Pt coordination number of around 2, achieve the optimal catalytic performance. The superior performance of a fully exposed few-atom ensemble catalyst is attributed to its high d-band center, multiple neighboring metal sites, and weak binding of the product.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

Conditions Yield
With carbon dioxide; at 550 ℃; for 1h; under 750.075 Torr;
TiO2-ZrO2 P; In gas; at 620 ℃;
92.2 % Chromat.
5.8 % Chromat.
3.4 % Chromat.
zirconium(IV) oxide; In gas; at 620 ℃;
89.0 % Chromat.
3.4 % Chromat.
7.6 % Chromat.
TiO2-ZrO2 A; In gas; at 620 ℃;
1.1 % Chromat.
2.1 % Chromat.
96.8 % Chromat.
Leiten ueber Zinkchromat-Katalysatoren;
at 550 - 650 ℃;
zinc(II) oxide; at 599.9 ℃; Product distribution; variously modified ZnO;
vanadia; magnesium oxide; at 520 ℃; Product distribution; var. catalysts (var. temp. of calcination);
With cobalt(II) oxide; air; water; vanadia; magnesium oxide; at 439.9 - 559.9 ℃; Rate constant; Thermodynamic data; apparent activation energy; pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius equation;
With air; Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4; at 500 ℃; Further Variations:; Reagents; Product distribution;
lanthanum(III) oxide; tin(IV) oxide; at 449.85 - 499.85 ℃; for 3h; Further Variations:; Catalysts; Temperatures; Product distribution; Enzymatic reaction;
samarium(III) oxide; vanadia; at 475 ℃; for 1h; Further Variations:; Catalysts; Temperatures; Product distribution;
vanadia; at 475 ℃; Further Variations:; Catalysts; Product distribution;
With (H3O)2[(Mo6Cl8)Cl6]*6H2O; hydrogen; at 400 ℃; Product distribution;
With cerium(IV) oxide; air; molybdenum; at 500 ℃; for 2h; Further Variations:; Reagents; Product distribution;
lanthanum nitrate (7 wtpercent as lanthanum metal); potassium nitrate (1 wtpercent as potassium metal); alumina; mixture of, calcined; at 522 - 582 ℃; Product distribution / selectivity; Continuous reaction;
lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3); at 555 - 602 ℃; Product distribution / selectivity; Continuous reaction;
lanthanum carbonate (30 wtpercent as lanthanum metal); cerium carbonate (2.6 wtpercent as cerium metal); neodymium carbonate (1.5 wtpercent as neodymium metal); praseodymium carbonate (9 wtpercent as praseodymium metal); nitric acid; potassium nitrate (1 wtpercent as potassium metal); alumina; mixture of, calcined; at 542 - 602 ℃; Product distribution / selectivity; Continuous reaction;
iron and potassium salts; at 590 - 630 ℃; under 300.03 - 637.564 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With carbon dioxide; at 660 ℃; Autoclave;
With Mg3Fe0.2Co0.25Al0.5; at 550 ℃; for 3h; Inert atmosphere;
With aluminum oxide; at 600 ℃; for 20h; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Kinetics; Inert atmosphere;
With carbon dioxide; hydrogen; for 5h; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Kinetics; Inert atmosphere;
With nitrogen doped reducedgraphene oxide dispersed in nanodiamond; at 550 ℃; for 20h; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere;
With carbon dioxide; at 544.84 ℃; under 760.051 Torr;
With nanodiamond(at)carbon nitride; at 550 ℃; for 20h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;
With carbon dioxide; at 550 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst;
Conditions Yield
With hydrogen; AP-64 alumina-platinum; at 549.9 ℃; under 7350.6 Torr; Product distribution; Thermodynamic data; Rate constant; other temp., pressure, apparent activation energy;
Conditions Yield
With air; Cd-Sn-P-O; at 515 ℃; under 760 Torr; Mechanism; Product distribution; other catalyst, vari. of reagebt composition, of temperature; selectivity to styrene conversion investigated;
Conditions Yield
With nitrogen; oxygen; Cd-Sn-P-O; at 515 ℃; under 760 Torr;
With oxygen; at 440 ℃; for 10h; under 760.051 Torr; Gas phase;
With carbon dioxide; at 660 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst;
Conditions Yield
at 930 ℃; Further byproducts given;




Conditions Yield
With sulfonic acid resin (H+ form, Bio-Rad AG 50W-12); sodium iodide; In acetonitrile; at 75 ℃; for 0.133333h;






Conditions Yield
With triphenylstannane; at 120 ℃; Yield given. Yields of byproduct given;










Conditions Yield
With oxygen; cyclohexa-1,3-diene; at 299.9 ℃; for 0.0347222h; Product distribution; variation of temperature and time;
Conditions Yield
at 597 ℃; for 0.000555556h; under 2 Torr; Further byproducts given;
22 % Spectr.
9 % Spectr.
3 % Spectr.
6 % Spectr.
Conditions Yield
With cyclohexene; silica gel; palladium dichloride; at 150 ℃; Product distribution; also with Broensted and Lewis acids and other Pd-salts at 90-170 deg C;

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