Welcome to LookChem.com Sign In|Join Free

Cas Database

71-36-3

71-36-3

Identification

  • Product Name:1-Butanol

  • CAS Number: 71-36-3

  • EINECS:200-751-6

  • Molecular Weight:74.1228

  • Molecular Formula: C4H10O

  • HS Code:2905130000

  • Mol File:71-36-3.mol

Synonyms:Butylalcohol (8CI);1-Butyl alcohol;Butanol;Butyl hydroxide;CCS 203;Hemostyp;Methylolpropane;NSC 62782;Propylcarbinol;n-Butanol;n-Butyl alcohol;

Post Buying Request Now
Entrust LookChem procurement to find high-quality suppliers faster

Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):HarmfulXn, ToxicT, FlammableF

  • Hazard Codes: Xn:Harmful;

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H226 Flammable liquid and vapourH302 Harmful if swallowed H315 Causes skin irritation H318 Causes serious eye damage H335 May cause respiratory irritation H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. In case of skin contact Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Give one or two glasses of water to drink. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention . Anesthesia, nausea, headache, dizziness, irritation of respiratory passages. Mildly irritating to the skin and eyes. (USCG, 1999) Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Higher alcohols (>3 carbons) and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture: carbon oxides... Excerpt from ERG Guide 129 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Miscible / Noxious)]: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a (P) may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. (ERG, 2016) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Personal protection: filter respirator for organic gases and vapours adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Absorb remaining liquid in sand or inert absorbent. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. Wash away remainder with plenty of water. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES. Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Remove all sources of ignition. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Beware of vapours accumulating to form explosive concentrations. Vapours can accumulate in low areas.; Environmental precautions: Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains.; Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up: Contain spillage, and then collect with an electrically protected vacuum cleaner or by wet-brushing and place in container for disposal according to local regulations.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Fireproof. Separated from strong oxidants and aluminium.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesRecommended Exposure Limit: 15 Minute Ceiling value: 50 ppm (150 mg/cu m) [skin].Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

Supplier and reference price

  • Manufacture/Brand
  • Product Description
  • Packaging
  • Price
  • Delivery
  • Purchase

Relevant articles and documentsAll total 828 Articles be found

Merrow, R. T.,Cristol, S. J.,Dolah, R. W. van

, p. 4259 - 4265 (1953)

Manganese containing copper aluminate catalysts: Genesis of structures and active sites for hydrogenation of aldehydes

D?rfelt, Christoph,Hammerton, Michelle,Martin, David,Wellmann, Alexander,Aletsee, Clara C.,Tromp, Moniek,K?hler, Klaus

, p. 80 - 90 (2021)

Copper aluminate spinel (CuO.CuAl2O4) is the favoured Cr-free substitute for the copper chromite catalyst (CuO.CuCr2O4) in the industrial hydrogenation of aldehydes. New insights in the catalytic mechanism were obtained by systematically studying the structure and activity of these catalysts including effects of manganese as a catalyst component. The hydrogenation of butyraldehyde to butanol was studied as a model reaction and the active structure was characterised using X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, N2O chemisorption, EXAFS and XANES, including in-situ investigations. The active catalyst is a reduced spinel lattice that is stabilised by protons, with copper metal nanoparticles grown upon its surface. Incorporation of Mn into the spinel lattice has a profound effect on the spinel structure. Mn stabilises the spinel towards reduction of CuII to Cu0 by occupation of tetrahedral sites with Mn cations, but also causes decreased catalytic activity. Structural data, combined with the effect on catalysis, indicate a predominantly interface-based reaction mechanism, involving both the spinel and copper nanoparticle surface in protonation and reduction of the aldehyde. The electron reservoir of the metallic copper particles is regenerated by the dissociative adsorption and oxidation of H2 on the metal surface. The generated protons are stored in the spinel phase, acting as proton reservoir. Cu(I) species located within the spinel and identified by XANES are probably not involved in the catalytic cycle.

Step mechanism of 1-butanol formation in the course of liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation of 2-butyne-1,4-diol

El'chaninov,Pyatnitsyna,El'chaninov

, p. 585 - 589 (2015)

Exhaustive hydrogenation of 2-butyne-1,4-diol to 1,4-butanediol on suspended palladium and Raney nickel catalysts under atmospheric pressure at 40 C was studied with the aim to determine the mechanism of 1-butanol formation. The previously unknown pathway of 1-butanol synthesis is realized under these conditions. The content of 1-butanol precursors in hydrogenation catalyzates was estimated by gas-liquid chromatography. The graphic dependence of the content of the intermediates and 1-butanol on time was found. The possibility of increasing the hydrogenation selectivity on Raney Ni catalysts with respect to the target product was revealed.

Transhalogenation Catalysed by Haloalkane Dehalogenases Engineered to Stop Natural Pathway at Intermediate

Beier, Andy,Damborsky, Jiri,Prokop, Zbynek

, p. 2438 - 2442 (2019)

Haloalkane dehalogenases (HLDs) are α/β-hydrolases that convert halogenated compounds to their corresponding alcohols. The overall kinetic mechanism proceeds via four steps: (i) binding of halogenated substrate, (ii) bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) leading to the cleavage of a carbon-halogen bond and the formation of an alkyl-enzyme intermediate, (iii) nucleophilic addition of a water molecule resulting in the hydrolysis of the intermediate to the corresponding alcohol and (iv) release of the reaction products – an alcohol, a halide ion and a proton. Although, the overall reaction has been reported as irreversible, several kinetic evidences from previous studies suggest the reversibility of the first SN2 chemical step. To study this phenomenon, we have engineered HLDs to stop the catalytic cycle at the stage of the alkyl-enzyme intermediate. The ability of the intermediate to exchange halides was confirmed by a stopped-flow fluorescence binding analysis. Finally, the transhalogenation reaction was confirmed with several HLDs and 2,3-dichloropropene in the presence of a high concentration of iodide. The formation of the transhalogenation product 3-iodo-2-chloropropene catalysed by five mutant HLDs was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Hereby we demonstrated the reversibility of the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond by HLDs resulting in a transhalogenation. After optimization, the transhalogenation reaction can possibly find its use in biocatalytic applications. Enabling this reaction by strategically engineering the enzyme to stop at an intermediate in the catalytic cycle that is synthetically more useful than the product of the natural pathway is a novel concept. (Figure presented.).

Hydrogen transfer reactions relevant to Guerbet coupling of alcohols over hydroxyapatite and magnesium oxide catalysts

Young, Zachary D.,Davis, Robert J.

, p. 1722 - 1729 (2018)

Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions were performed over hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAP) and magnesia (MgO) to explore their role in the reaction network for the Guerbet coupling of ethanol to butanol. In particular, the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol at 633 K and the hydrogenation of ethene and acetone at 473 K using both H2 and ethanol as a hydrogen source were studied. The H2-D2 exchange reaction at room temperature and the Guerbet coupling of ethanol at 613-673 K in the presence of D2 were also performed. Although there was no consequence of adding D2 to the Guerbet coupling of ethanol in terms of rate or selectivity, incorporation of deuterium into product butanol was only observed over MgO. This was attributed to the rapid exchange of H2-D2 that can occur over MgO but not over HAP. Hydrogenation of acetone occurred with ethanol as a sacrificial hydrogen donor via an MPV-like reaction whereas hydrogenation with H2 was not observed. Hydrogenation of ethene with H2 or ethanol was not observed above background. Comparing the rate of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenation to the rate of ethanol coupling over HAP and MgO suggests that the MPV-like hydrogen transfer reaction over HAP is mostly responsible for generating intermediate acetaldehyde during the Guerbet reaction instead of direct dehydrogenation.

Isotopic transient analysis of the ethanol coupling reaction over magnesia

Birky, Theodore W.,Kozlowski, Joseph T.,Davis, Robert J.

, p. 130 - 137 (2013)

Isotopic transient analysis of ethanol coupling to butanol over MgO in a fixed-bed reactor at 673 K revealed a surface coverage of adsorbed ethanol equivalent to about 50% of the exposed MgO atomic pairs. DRIFTS of ethanol reaction at 673 K confirmed that the surface was populated primarily with adsorbed ethoxide and hydroxide, presumably from the dissociative adsorption of ethanol. The coverage of reactive intermediates leading to butanol was an order of magnitude lower than that of adsorbed ethanol, and about half the surface base sites counted by adsorption of CO2. The intrinsic turnover frequency for the coupling reaction at 673 K determined by isotopic transient analysis was 0.04 s-1, which is independent of any assumptions about the nature of the active sites. Although the ethanol coupling reaction appears to involve aldol condensation of an aldehyde intermediate, the high coverage of ethanol under steady-state conditions apparently inhibits unproductive CC coupling reactions that deactivate the catalyst at high temperature.

A green process for the production of butanol from butyraldehyde using alcohol dehydrogenase: Process details

Jadhav, Swati B.,Harde, Shirish,Bankar, Sandip B.,Granstroem, Tom,Ojamo, Heikki,Singhal, Rekha S.,Survase, Shrikant A.

, p. 14597 - 14602 (2014)

Depletion of energy sources has drawn attention towards production of bio-butanol by fermentation. However, the process is constrained by product inhibition which results in low product yield. Hence, a new strategy wherein butanol was produced from butyraldehyde using alcohol dehydrogenase and NADH as a cofactor was developed. Butyraldehyde can be synthesized chemically or through fermentation. The problem of cofactor regeneration during the reaction for butanol production was solved using substrate coupled and enzyme coupled reactions. The conventional reaction produced 35% of butanol without regeneration of cofactor using 300 μM NADH. The process of substrate coupled reaction was optimized to get maximum conversion. NADH (30 μM) and 100 μg per ml of alcohol dehydrogenase (320 U mg-1) could convert 17.39 mM of butyraldehyde to butanol using ethanol (ratio of butyraldehye to ethanol 1:4) giving a maximum conversion of 75%. The enzyme coupled reaction under the same conditions showed only 24% conversion of butyraldehyde to butanol using the glutamate dehydrogenase-l-glutamate enzyme system for the regeneration of cofactor. Hence, substrate coupled reaction is suggested as a better method over the enzyme coupled reaction for the cost effective production of butanol. This journal is the Partner Organisations 2014.

Tuning the selectivities of Mg-Al mixed oxides for ethanol upgrading reactions through the presence of transition metals

Quesada, Jorge,Faba, Laura,Díaz, Eva,Ordó?ez, Salvador

, p. 167 - 174 (2018)

The effect of the presence of reduced Co and Ni (chosen as representative metals because of their good activity for dehydrogenation reactions) on the catalytic performance of basic mixed oxide (Mg-Al) for ethanol condensation is studied in this work. This effect has been studied both in absence and in presence of hydrogen, and considering the different steps of this complex reaction. Globally, best results were obtained with Co/MgAl, under reducing atmosphere, at mild temperature (below 600 K). At these conditons, 1-butanol production rates are up to eight times higher than the obtained with Mg-Al under inert atmosphere. Co has a marked activity in the dehydrogenation step, that prevails over its less relevant activity in aldolization and hydrogenation reactions. This result indicates the relevant role of this first reaction step. DRIFT spectroscopy analyses were carried out to support the experimental results and to identify the role of hydrogen and metals on the oligomerization and permanent adsorption processes, which can produce the deactivation of the catalyst.

Kinetics of complexation between cyclodextrin and alcohol by ultrasonic relaxation method: β-cyclodextrin solutions with 1-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol

Nishikawa, Sadakatsu

, p. 1003 - 1007 (1997)

The ultrasonic absorption coefficients over frequency range from 1.0 to 220 MHz were measured in aqueous β-cyclodextrin solutions with 1-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol at 25 °C. A clear single relaxational absorption with a relaxation frequency from 5 to 20 MHz was observed in a solution with 1-butanol, while the relaxational absorption was found in a lower frequency range in a solution with 2-methyl-2-propanol. The cause of the relaxation was attributed to a perturbation of a chemical equilibrium associated with complexation between β-cyclodextrin (host) and alcohol (guest). The rate and equilibrium constants for the complexation were determined from the concentration dependence of the relaxation frequency for the solution with 1-butanol. The standard volume change of the reaction was also obtained from the maximum absorption per wavelength. These results were compared with those for complexation between β-cyclodextrin and 1-propanol, and were considered in relation to the alcohol molecular structure. It was found that the rate of complex formation is almost independent of the guest molecule, and, therefore, the equilibrium constant for the complexation is controlled by the rate of departure of the guest molecule from the host. From this fact, the rate parameters for a solution with 2-methyl-2-propanol were estimated, and the calculated ultrasonic relaxation parameter was compared with the experimental data.

Synthesis, acid–base and complexing properties of tripotassium tributyl [nitrilotris(methylene)]tris(phosphonate)

Garifzyanov,Shurygin,Cherkasov,Ivshin,Kataeva

, (2016)

-

Unexpected transformation of butyl vinyl ether treated with HF

Shainyan,Grigor'eva

, p. 1177 - 1178 (2001)

-

Synthesis and Characterization of Ru-Loaded Anodized Aluminum Oxide for Hydrogenation Catalysis

Vandekerkhove, Annelies,Negahdar, Leila,Glas, Daan,Stassen, Ivo,Matveev, Serguei,Meeldijk, Johannes D.,Meirer, Florian,De Vos, Dirk E.,Weckhuysen, Bert M.

, (2019)

Anodized aluminum oxides (AAOs) are synthesized and used as catalyst support in combination with Ru as metal in hydrogenation catalysis. SEM and TEM analysis of the as-synthesized AAOs reveal uniform, ordered nanotubes with pore diameters of 18 nm, which are further characterized with Kr physisorption, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. After impregnation of the AAOs with Ru, the presence of Ru nanoparticles inside the tubular pores is evidenced clearly for the first time via HAADF-STEM-EDX. The Ru?AAOs have been tested for catalytic activity, which showed high conversion and selectivity for the hydrogenation of toluene and butanal.

-

Takahashi,Ikui

, (1948)

-

Arnett,Anderson

, p. 1542 (1963)

Multiproduct steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis of the ethanol coupling reaction over hydroxyapatite and magnesia

Hanspal, Sabra,Young, Zachary D.,Shou, Heng,Davis, Robert J.

, p. 1737 - 1746 (2015)

The Guerbet coupling of ethanol into butanol was investigated using multiproduct steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA) in a comparative study between stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAP) and magnesia (MgO) catalysts at 613 and 653 K, respectively. The steady-state catalytic reactions were conducted in a gas-phase, fixed-bed, differential reactor at 1.3 atm total system pressure. Multiproduct SSITKA results showed that the mean surface residence time of reactive intermediates leading to acetaldehyde was significantly shorter than that of intermediates leading to butanol on both HAP and MgO. This finding may suggest that the dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde is fast on these surfaces compared with C-C bond formation. If adsorbed acetaldehyde is a key reaction intermediate in the Guerbet coupling of ethanol into butanol, then SSITKA revealed that the majority of adsorbed acetaldehyde produced on the surface of MgO desorbs into the gas-phase, whereas the majority of adsorbed acetaldehyde on HAP likely undergoes sequential aldol-type reactions required for butanol formation. Adsorption microcalorimetry of triethylamine and CO2 showed a significantly higher number of acid and base sites on the surface of HAP compared with those on MgO. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy of adsorbed ethanol followed by stepwise temperature-programmed desorption revealed that ethoxide is more weakly bound to the HAP surface compared with MgO. A high surface density of acid-base site pairs along with a weak binding affinity for ethanol on HAP may provide a possible explanation for the increased activity and high butanol selectivity observed with HAP compared with MgO catalysts in the ethanol coupling reaction.

Wada,Matsuda

, p. 197,198 (1974)

SINGLE-STAGE VAPOR-PHASE HYDROGENATION OF CROTONALDEHYDE TO n-BUTYL ALCOHOL.

Morozova,Zhorov,Panchenkov

, p. 259 - 261 (1974)

The commercial hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde to n-butyl alcohol is conducted in two stages. First the feedstock is 90-95% hydrogenated, then the product is rehydrogenated. Supported copper and nickel oxide catalysts are used. In order to carry out the single-stage vapor-phase hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde, work was performed on the preparation of a new, active catalyst with good mechanical strength; this was obtained by coprecipitation of copper compounds with other added metals from solutions of their salts, together with silica gel. The resulting catalyst mass was subjected to further treatment, including stages of syneresis, washing, drying, pelletizing, and activation. In the reported investigation, crotonaldehyde was hydrogenated on several catalyst specimens differing in chemical composition. The hydrogenations were performed at temperatures of 160, 180, and 200 C, liquid feedstock space velocities of 1. 2-2. 4 h** minus **1, and hydrogen space velocities of 1000 and 2000 h** minus **1. The composition of the liquid reaction products was determined by gas chromatography. Results obtained with the modified copper catalyst prepared under laboratory conditions are tabulated and compared with those obtained with commercial catalysts. It is shown that the modified catalyst has been more active than the commercial catalyst. This catalyst as prepared by the authors proved to have approximately twice the mechanical strength of the commercial catalyst.

Influence of surface acid and base sites on the Guerbet coupling of ethanol to butanol over metal phosphate catalysts

Hanspal, Sabra,Young, Zachary D.,Prillaman, J. Tyler,Davis, Robert J.

, p. 182 - 190 (2017)

Hydroxyapatite (HAP; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is a well-recognized catalyst for the Guerbet coupling of ethanol to butanol. In an effort to explore the role of the anion components of the catalyst, steady-state, gas phase catalytic coupling of ethanol to butanol was investigated at 633?K and atmospheric pressure over beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP; β-Ca3(PO4)2) and fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite (FAP; Ca10(PO4)6F2). Both β-TCP and FAP catalysts were catalytically active for butanol formation, leading to ~35% selectivity at low conversion, suggesting that the PO43? group contributes to the active acid-base site pair for butanol formation during ethanol coupling over HAP. Co-feeding water, a product of ethanol coupling, revealed weaker inhibition of the rate over HAP relative to MgO, confirming the potential negative influence of strong base sites on coupling catalysts. Catalytic reactions of ethanol over Mg3(PO4)2, β-TCP, and Sr3(PO4)2 catalysts demonstrated the importance of Lewis acidity of the metal phosphates on the reaction. Relatively strong Lewis acid sites on the Mg3(PO4)2 surface (Mg2+ cations) favored undesired ethanol dehydration to ethene (36% selectivity) and diethyl ether (52% selectivity) whereas the Sr3(PO4)2 catalyst predominantly catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde (91% selectivity) at a rate significantly higher than that observed over the other catalysts. Evidently, the β-TCP exposes intermediate-strength Lewis acid sites provided by surface Ca2+ cations that enable the material to effectively convert ethanol to butanol with 35% selectivity.

Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst

Lee, Jong-Min,Upare, Pravin P.,Chang, Jong-San,Hwang, Young Kyu,Lee, Jeong Ho,Hwang, Dong Won,Hong, Do-Young,Lee, Seung Hwan,Jeong, Myung-Geun,Kim, Young Dok,Kwon, Young-Uk

, p. 2998 - 3001 (2014)

Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation.

Adams et al.

, p. 902,906 (1968)

Basson,du Plessis

, p. 775 (1967)

Degradation of cyhalofop-butyl (CyB) by Pseudomonas azotoformans strain QDZ-1 and cloning of a novel gene encoding CyB-hydrolyzing esterase

Nie, Zhi-Juan,Hang, Bao-Jian,Cai, Shu,Xie, Xiang-Ting,He, Jian,Li, Shun-Peng

, p. 6040 - 6046 (2011)

Cyhalofop-butyl (CyB) is a widely used aryloxyphenoxy propanoate (AOPP) herbicide for control of grasses in rice fields. Five CyB-degrading strains were isolated from rice field soil and identified as Agromyces sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Aquamicrobium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Pseudomonas azotoformans; the results revealed high biodiversity of CyB-degrading bacteria in rice soil. One strain, P. azotoformans QDZ-1, degraded 84.5% of 100 mg L-1 CyB in 5 days of incubation in a flask and utilized CyB as carbon source for growth. Strain QDZ-1 could also degrade a wide range of other AOPP herbicides. An esterase gene, chbH, which hydrolyzes CyB to cyhalofop acid (CyA), was cloned from strain QDZ-1 and functionally expressed. A chbH-disrupted mutant dchbH was constructed by insertion mutation. Mutant dchbH could not degrade and utilize CyB, suggesting that chbH was the only esterase gene responsible for CyB degradation in strain QDZ-1. ChbH hydrolyzed all AOPP herbicides tested as well as permethrin. The catalytic efficiency of ChbH toward different AOPP herbicides followed the order quizalofop-P-ethyl ≈ fenoxaprop-P-ethyl > CyB ≈ fluazifop-P-butyl > diclofop-methyl ≈ haloxyfop-P-methyl; the results indicated that the chain length of the alcohol moiety strongly affected the biodegradability of the AOPP herbicides, whereas the substitutions in the aromatic ring had only a slight influence.

Direct electrochemical addressing of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase for the heterogeneous bioelectrocatalytic reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol

Schlager,Neugebauer,Haberbauer,Hinterberger,Sariciftci

, p. 967 - 971 (2015)

Modified electrodes using immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes for the efficient electroreduction of butyraldehyde to butanol are presented as an important step for the utilization of CO2-reduction products. Alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized, embedded in an alginate-silicate hybrid gel, on a carbon felt (CF) electrode. The application of this enzyme to the reduction of an aldehyde to an alcohol with the aid of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), in analogy to the final step in the natural reduction cascade of CO2 to alcohol, has been already reported. However, the use of such enzymatic reductions is limited because of the necessity of providing expensive NADH as a sacrificial electron and proton donor. Immobilization of such dehydrogenase enzymes on electrodes and direct pumping of electrons into the biocatalysts offers an easy and efficient way for the biochemical recycling of CO2 to valuable chemicals or alternative synthetic fuels. We report the direct electrochemical addressing of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase for the reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol without consumption of NADH. The selective reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol occurs at room temperature, ambient pressure and neutral pH. Production of butanol was detected by using liquid-injection gas chromatography and was estimated to occur with Faradaic efficiencies of around 40%.

Insights into Ethanol Coupling over Hydroxyapatite using Modulation Excitation Operando Infrared Spectroscopy

Wang, Shao-Chun,Cendejas, Melissa C.,Hermans, Ive

, p. 4167 - 4175 (2020)

The coupling of biomass-derived ethanol to n-butanol is a topic of contemporary interest. Indeed, n-butanol can not only be used as a higher energy-density fuel additive, it is also a key component in perfumes and serves as a solvent for paints and dyes. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) emerged in the literature as a promising catalysts for this transformation, with n-butanol selectivity reaching ~75 percent at 10 percent ethanol conversion. However, the molecular-level mechanism for this reaction is still unclear and several mechanistic questions remain unanswered. Here, we use diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy, coupled with mass spectrometry following a modulation excitation approach (ME-DRIFTS-MS) that enables us to better understand the dynamic processes involved. Our approach allows for a vibrational characterization of the active surface species and the formulation of a consistent mechanism. Based on our experimental observations, Ca2+/OH? can be put forward as the main active site for the aldol condensation. POH/OH? acid-base pair is proposed as the active site for the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley (MPV) direct hydrogen transfer of the aldol condensation product, crotonaldehyde.

Boosting the guerbet reaction: A cooperative catalytic system for the efficient bio-ethanol refinery to second-generation biofuels

Calcagno, Francesco,Cavani, Fabrizio,Cesari, Cristiana,Gagliardi, Anna,Lucarelli, Carlo,Mazzoni, Rita,Messori, Alessandro,Monti, Nicola,Rivalta, Ivan,Tabanelli, Tommaso,Zacchini, Stefano,Zanotti, Valerio

, p. 47 - 59 (2021/12/16)

The catalytic activity of anionic ruthenium complexes toward the transformation of bio-ethanol to 1-butanol and higher alcohols is found to be dependent on the imidazolium counterion. After the identification of a parallel reaction involving the catalyst in hydrogen evolution, conversion and selectivity are impressively boosted by the addition of p-benzoquinones as co-catalysts. The catalytic system avoids the side reaction and led to highly competitive conversions up to 88% (0.2 % mol ruthenium catalyst loading, 1.5 % mol benzoquinone loading). Butanol and higher alcohols are produced in yields up to 85% (overall selectivity 97%) as a mixture of valuable alcohols for advanced biofuel and lubricants applications. The catalytic system can be recycled and the reaction shows comparable efficiency on a real matrix (alcohol from wine production chain wastes) even in the presence of significant amounts of water, thus closing a hypothetic economic circle. A reaction mechanism is proposed for the most promising ruthenium complex working in cooperation with the most efficient co-catalyst: p-benzoquinone.

MOF-derived hcp-Co nanoparticles encapsulated in ultrathin graphene for carboxylic acids hydrogenation to alcohols

Dong, Mei,Fan, Weibin,Gao, Xiaoqing,Zhu, Shanhui

, p. 201 - 211 (2021/06/03)

Highly efficient conversion of carboxylic acids to valuable alcohols is a great challenge for easily corroded non-noble metal catalysts. Here, a series of few-layer graphene encapsulated metastable hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) Co nanoparticles were fabricated by reductive pyrolysis of metal-organic framework precursor. The sample pyrolyzed at 400 °C (hcp-Co@G400) presented outstanding performance and stability for converting a variety of functional carboxylic acids and its turnover frequency was one magnitude higher than that of conventional facc-centered cubic (fcc) Co catalysts. In situ DRIFTS spectroscopy of model reaction acetic acid hydrogenation and DFT calculation results confirm that carboxylic acid initially undergoes dehydroxylation to RCH2CO* followed by consecutive hydrogenation to RCH2CH2OH through RCH2COH*. Acetic acid prefers to vertically adsorb at hcp-Co (0 0 2) facet with a much lower adsorption energy than parallel adsorption at fcc-Co (1 1 1) surface, which plays a key role in decreasing the activation barrier of the rate-determining step of acetic acid dehydroxylation.

METHOD FOR PRODUCING BIO ALCOHOL FROM INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION TANK

-

Paragraph 0057-0060; 0063; 0065-0066; 0068-0069; 0071, (2021/05/25)

The present invention relates to a method for producing a bio-alcohol by reacting a mixture of volatile fatty acid with methanol in 2 through 11 in a reactor in the presence of a 280 °C-membered alkaline earth metal catalyst or 400 °C transition metal catalyst formed based on a support.

Highly Modular Piano-Stool N-Heterocyclic Carbene Iron Complexes: Impact of Ligand Variation on Hydrosilylation Activity

Nylund, Pamela V. S.,Ségaud, Nathalie C.,Albrecht, Martin

, p. 1538 - 1550 (2021/05/29)

The piano-stool configuration combined with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligation constitutes an attractive scaffold for employing iron in catalysis. Here, we have expanded this scaffold by installing a pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl (Cp*) ligand as a strong electron donor compared to the traditionally used unsubstituted cyclopentadiene (Cp). Moreover, decarboxylation is introduced as a method to prepare these iron(II) NHC complexes, which avoids the isolation of air-sensitive free carbenes. In addition to the Cp/Cp? variation, the complexes have been systematically modulated at the NHC scaffold, the NHC wingtip groups, and the ancillary ligands in order to identify critical factors that govern the catalytic activity of the iron center in the hydrosilylation of aldehydes. These modulations reveal the importance of steric tailoring and optimization of electron density for high catalytic performance. The data demonstrate a critical role of the NHC scaffold with triazolylidenes imparting consistently higher activity than imidazolylidenes and a correlation between catalytic activity and steric rather than electronic factors. Moreover, the implementation of steric bulk is strongly dependent on the nature of the NHC and severely limited by the Cp? iron precursor. The best performing catalytic systems reach turnover frequencies, TOFmax's, of up to 360 h-1 at 60 °C. Mechanistic investigations by 1H NMR and in situ IR spectroscopies indicate a catalyst activation that involves CO release and aldehyde coordination to the [Fe(Cp)(NHC)I] fragment.

Method for producing a shaped catalyst body

-

Page/Page column 29-31, (2021/11/19)

Provided herein is a novel process for producing shaped catalyst bodies in which a mixture having aluminum contents of Al±0 in the range from 80 to 99.8% by weight, based on the mixture used, is used to form a specific intermetallic phase, shaped catalyst bodies obtainable by the process of the invention, a process for producing an active catalyst fixed bed including the shaped catalyst bodies provided herein, the active catalyst fixed beds and also the use of these active catalyst fixed beds for the hydrogenation of organic hydrogenatable compounds or for formate degradation.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

dimethyldibutoxysilane
1591-02-2

dimethyldibutoxysilane

me2Si(Oet)(On-bu)
18246-71-4

me2Si(Oet)(On-bu)

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With iodine; at 20 ℃; Equilibrium constant;
α-cyclodextrin * 1-butanol
114429-10-6

α-cyclodextrin * 1-butanol

alpha cyclodextrin
10016-20-3

alpha cyclodextrin

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
In water; at 25 ℃; Equilibrium constant;
at 25 ℃; Equilibrium constant; binding of cyclodextrins to various guests; formation of 1:1 complexes; dissociation constants of CD-guest complexes; effect of guest alcohols on the CD-retarded hydrolysis of benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal;
1,2-dimethoxyethane
110-71-4

1,2-dimethoxyethane

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

1-butyl-1-nitrosourea
869-01-2

1-butyl-1-nitrosourea

butan-2-yl ethyl ester
2679-87-0

butan-2-yl ethyl ester

ethyl methyl ether
540-67-0

ethyl methyl ether

butyl ethyl ether
628-81-9

butyl ethyl ether

1-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-butane
13343-98-1

1-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-butane

2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)butan

2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)butan

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With sodium hydrogencarbonate; Product distribution; Mechanism; Ambient temperature; further reagent: K2CO3, var. conc.;
72.0 % Chromat.
9.4 % Chromat.
17.6 % Chromat.
1.0 % Chromat.
dimethyl cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioate
624-48-6

dimethyl cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioate

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran
13436-45-8

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

propan-1-ol
71-23-8

propan-1-ol

1-methoxy-1,4-butanediol

1-methoxy-1,4-butanediol

2-(4'-hydroxybutoxy)-tetrahydrofuran
64001-06-5

2-(4'-hydroxybutoxy)-tetrahydrofuran

4-hydroxy-butanoic acid 4-hydroxybutyl ester

4-hydroxy-butanoic acid 4-hydroxybutyl ester

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

4-hydroxybutyraldehyde
25714-71-0

4-hydroxybutyraldehyde

methyl 4-hydroxybutanoate
925-57-5

methyl 4-hydroxybutanoate

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With hydrogen; at 190 ℃; under 46504.7 Torr; Gas phase;
79.1%
10.4%
5.3%
dimethyl cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioate
624-48-6

dimethyl cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioate

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran
13436-45-8

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

propan-1-ol
71-23-8

propan-1-ol

2-(4'-hydroxybutoxy)-tetrahydrofuran
64001-06-5

2-(4'-hydroxybutoxy)-tetrahydrofuran

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With hydrogen; copper catalyst, T 4489, Sud-Chemie AG, Munich; at 150 - 280 ℃; under 187519 Torr; Neat liquid(s) and gas(es)/vapour(s);
98%
1%
0.4%
0.5%
3-tetrahydrofuranmethanol
124391-75-9,124506-31-6,15833-61-1

3-tetrahydrofuranmethanol

3-methyltetrahydrofuran
13423-15-9

3-methyltetrahydrofuran

dihydro-4-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
64190-48-3,65284-00-6,70470-05-2,1679-49-8

dihydro-4-methyl-2(3H)-furanone

(+/-)-2-methyl-1-butanol
137-32-6

(+/-)-2-methyl-1-butanol

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With hydrogen; Catalyst C prepared in Example C (nickel on mixed silica-zirconia support Zr:Si:Ni 10:28:1); In water; at 280 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With hydrogen; Catalyst A prepared in Example A comprising nickel, molybdenum, and hydrous zirconia Zr:Mo:Ni 50:1:20; In water; at 280 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With hydrogen; Catalyst B prepared in Example Bcomprising nickel, molybdenum, and hydrous zirconia Zr:Mo:Ni 30:1:10; In water; at 280 - 300 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With hydrogen; Catalyst D prepared in Example D (nickel on the mixed silica-zirconia support Zr:Si:Ni 10:5:2); In water; at 280 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With hydrogen; Catalyst E prepared in Example E (nickel on mixed silica-zirconia Zr:Si:Ni 1:1:1); In water; at 300 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With hydrogen; Catalyst F prepared in Example F (nickel and niobium - containing zirconia catalyst Zr:Nb:Ni 20:1:10); In water; at 280 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With hydrogen; Catalyst H prepared in Example H (nickel molybdate reduced under hydrogen Mo:Ni 1:1); In water; at 280 - 300 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With hydrogen; Catalyst J prepared in Example J (nickel-molybdenum catalyst Mo:Ni 1:1); In water; at 280 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
3-tetrahydrofuranmethanol
124391-75-9,124506-31-6,15833-61-1

3-tetrahydrofuranmethanol

3-methyltetrahydrofuran
13423-15-9

3-methyltetrahydrofuran

dihydro-4-methyl-2(3H)-furanone
64190-48-3,65284-00-6,70470-05-2,1679-49-8

dihydro-4-methyl-2(3H)-furanone

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With hydrogen; Catalyst G prepared in Example G (nickel on mixed silica-alumina Al:Si:Ni 1:1:1); In water; at 280 ℃; for 1h; under 10336 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
tri-n-butyl phosphite
102-85-2

tri-n-butyl phosphite

dibutyl hydrogen phosphite
1809-19-4

dibutyl hydrogen phosphite

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With water; at 25 ℃; pH=3;
2,5-dihydrofuran
1708-29-8

2,5-dihydrofuran

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran
13436-45-8

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With hydrogen; at 99.84 ℃; for 1h; under 30003 Torr; Autoclave;
14 %Chromat.
10 %Chromat.
64 %Chromat.
acetaldehyde
75-07-0,9002-91-9

acetaldehyde

diethyl acetal
105-57-7,30846-29-8

diethyl acetal

homoalylic alcohol
627-27-0

homoalylic alcohol

Ethyl hexanoate
123-66-0

Ethyl hexanoate

(E/Z)-2-buten-1-ol
6117-91-5,542-72-3

(E/Z)-2-buten-1-ol

2,4-hexadienal
80466-34-8,4488-48-6

2,4-hexadienal

2,4,6-octatrienal
17609-31-3

2,4,6-octatrienal

ethyl hex-3-enoate
2396-83-0

ethyl hex-3-enoate

butyraldehyde
123-72-8

butyraldehyde

ethyl acetate
141-78-6

ethyl acetate

crotonaldehyde
123-73-9,4170-30-3

crotonaldehyde

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
In ethanol; at 180 ℃; under 15001.5 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Catalytic behavior; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;

Global suppliers and manufacturers

Global( 109) Suppliers
  • Company Name
  • Business Type
  • Contact Tel
  • Emails
  • Main Products
  • Country
  • Simagchem Corporation
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:+86-592-2680277
  • Emails:sale@simagchem.com
  • Main Products:110
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • EAST CHEMSOURCES LIMITED
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-532-81906761
  • Emails:josen@eastchem-cn.com
  • Main Products:97
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Amadis Chemical Co., Ltd.
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:86-571-89925085
  • Emails:sales@amadischem.com
  • Main Products:29
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Shaanxi BLOOM TECH Co.,Ltd
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:+86-29-86470566
  • Emails:sales@bloomtechz.com
  • Main Products:80
  • Country:China (Mainland)
close
Post a RFQ

Enter 15 to 2000 letters.Word count: 0 letters

Attach files(File Format: Jpeg, Jpg, Gif, Png, PDF, PPT, Zip, Rar,Word or Excel Maximum File Size: 3MB)

1

What can I do for you?
Get Best Price

Get Best Price for 71-36-3
Post Buying Request Now
close
Remarks: The blank with*must be completed