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96-48-0 Usage

Fire Hazard

gamma-Butyrolactone is combustible.

Uses

  • It is an important organic synthesis intermediate which can be used to synthesize indole butyric acid, butyric acid, succinic acid, α-pyrrolidone, N-methylpyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone, acetyl-γ-butyrolactone, cyclopropylamine, ciprofloxacin, vitamin B1, chlorophyll and so on;
  • It is a non-toxic high boiling point solvent with high solubility and safe and convenient usage and management;
  • It is used as an extractant for butadiene, aromatic, advanced grease petroleum processing;
  • It is used as an acrylonitrile fiber spinning solvent in the chemical fiber industry. 
  • It is a thinner and curing agent commonly used in wool, nylon, acrylonitrile and other fiber dyeing auxiliaries and other chemical industries.

Toxicity grading

Middle

Chemical properties

Colorless transparent liquid It is miscible with water and the general organic and slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Acute toxicity

oral-rat LD50: 1540 mg/kg; oral-mouse LD50: 1720 mg/kg

Hazardous characteristics of the explosive

Explosible when react with butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and sodium hydroxide

Production

Maleic anhydride hydrogenation method is an advanced technology developed in 1970s. It can produce tetrahydrofuran and γ-butyrolactone in any proportion with a hydrogenation reaction, and the usual ratio is tetrachlorofuran: γ-butyrolactone = 3-4:1.
There are many production enterprises, but usually in small scale. The average level is 300t/a. The production capacity account for 30% of the total domestic production capacity.  2.1, 4-butanediol dehydrogenation reactor is a tube array reactor, filled with flake copper catalyst (with zinc oxide as the carrier). The reaction temperature is controlled at 230-240 ° C. The yield of the product is obtained by reduced pressure distillation of and the yield is above 77%.

Air & Water Reactions

Hygroscopic. Soluble in water.

Category

Flammable substance

Reactivity Profile

gamma-Butyrolactone can react with oxidizing materials, inorganic acids and bases, alcohols and amines. Rapidly hydrolyzed by bases and slowly hydrolyzed by acids. gamma-Butyrolactone is volatile with steam. . The combination of the lactone, butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and sodium hydroxide in the attempted synthesis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid caused a thermal runaway reaction that eventually exploded, [CISHC Chem. Safety Summ., 1977, 48, 3].

Chemical Properties

colourless oily liquid

Definition

ChEBI: A butan-4-olide that is tetrahydrofuran substituted by an oxo group at position 2.

Uses

r-butyrolactone is one kind of important fine chemicalintermediate, simultaneously also is one kind of performance fine highboiling point solvent, ideal antioxidant, plasticizer,extracting agent, absorbent, dispersing agent, solid stain, Coagulation Reagent.

General Description

Clear colorless oily liquid with a pleasant odor.

Flammability hazard

Flammable in case of heat, open flame; being able to react with oxidant; releasing toxic pungent smoke when in the process of pyrolysis.

Purification Methods

Dry the lactone over anhydrous CaSO4, then fractionally distil it. Handle it in a fume cupboard due to its TOXICITY. [Beilstein 17 V 7.]

Uses

Intermediate in the synthesis of polyvinylpyrrolidone, DL-methionine, piperidine, phenylbutyric acid, thiobutyric acids. Solvent for polyacrylonitrile, cellulose acetate, methyl methacrylate polymers, polystyrene. Constituent of paint removers, textile aids, drilling oils.

Extinguishing agent

Dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam

Storage and transportation properties

Make sure ventilating, low temperature and drying in the warehouse; separate from the oxidant; prevent fires.
InChI:InChI=1/C4H8O4/c1-2(5)3(6)4(7)8/h2-3,5-6H,1H3,(H,7,8)

96-48-0SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name γ-butyrolactone

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names γ-Butyrolactone

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:96-48-0 SDS

96-48-0Synthetic route

1,4-butenediol
6117-80-2

1,4-butenediol

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 5 wt% Pd nanoparticles loaded on phosphate anion exchanged [Mg6Al2(OH)16]CO3*xH2O; air at 50℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 6h; Reagent/catalyst; Irradiation;100%
With acetone; dihydridotetrakis(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium In toluene at 180℃; for 3h;88 % Chromat.
5-ketohexanoic acid
3128-06-1

5-ketohexanoic acid

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 5% active carbon-supported ruthenium; isopropyl alcohol at 160℃; for 0.416667h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Microwave irradiation;100%
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 180℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 3h; Reagent/catalyst; Solvent; Autoclave;
furfural
98-01-1

furfural

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

A

2-methylfuran
534-22-5

2-methylfuran

B

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; Cu-based catalyst at 210℃; Product distribution; Further Variations:; Temperatures; reaction in vapour phase, fixed bed reactor, coupled dehydrogenation reactions of title comp. and INO 160;A 96.5%
B 99.4%
cyclobutanone
1191-95-3

cyclobutanone

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxone; silica gel In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 1h; Baeyer-Villiger oxidation;99%
With acyltransferase from Mycobacterium smegmatis; dihydrogen peroxide; ethyl acetate In water at 35℃; for 2h; Baeyer-Villiger Ketone Oxidation; Enzymatic reaction;99%
With 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol; dihydrogen peroxide for 24h; Ambient temperature;98%
methyl 4-hydroxybutanoate
925-57-5

methyl 4-hydroxybutanoate

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C16H25N3O2S In n-heptane for 3h; Reflux; Molecular sieve; Inert atmosphere;99%
With C16H25N3O2S In n-heptane for 48h; Reflux; Molecular sieve;99%
In hexane at 26℃; porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL);
With porcine pancreatic lipase (E.(1)C313) In diethyl ether at 26℃; Yield given;
2-buten-4-olide
497-23-4

2-buten-4-olide

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In methanol under 26252.6 Torr; for 2h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;99%
With 0.5% palladium on silica gel; hydrogen In methanol at 80℃; under 26252.6 Torr; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;92.6%
With Ni#NiO; hydrogen In ethanol at 80℃; under 22502.3 Torr; for 1h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;86.6%
maleic acid
110-16-7

maleic acid

A

tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

B

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

C

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

D

succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

E

acetic acid
64-19-7

acetic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; 0.5 percent Pd on Rutile TiO2 at 110℃; Product distribution / selectivity;A 0.37%
B 0.28%
C 0.37%
D 98.89%
E 0.08%
Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

A

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

B

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; Cu-based catalyst at 190℃; Product distribution; Further Variations:; Temperatures; reaction in vapour phase, fixed bed reactor;A 98.8%
B 0.8%
maleic acid
110-16-7

maleic acid

A

tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

B

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

C

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

D

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

E

malic acid
617-48-1

malic acid

F

succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

G

acetic acid
64-19-7

acetic acid

H

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; 0.5percent Pd on Rutile TiO2 at 110℃; Product distribution / selectivity;A 0.45%
B 0.06%
C 0%
D 0.21%
E 0.36%
F 98.73%
G 0.04%
H 0.08%
maleic acid
110-16-7

maleic acid

A

tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

B

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

C

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

D

4-hydroxybutanoic acid
591-81-1

4-hydroxybutanoic acid

E

succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

F

acetic acid
64-19-7

acetic acid

G

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; 0.5percent Pd on Rutile TiO2 at 110℃; Product distribution / selectivity;A 0.77%
B 0.38%
C 0.24%
D 0.05%
E 98.28%
F 0.02%
G 0.26%
tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With trans-{dioxoruthenium(VI)(N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)propylenediamine)}(perchlorate)2 In acetonitrile at 25℃; for 1h;98%
Stage #1: tetrahydrofuran With bromine In dichloromethane; water for 1h; Reflux;
Stage #2: With dihydrogen peroxide In dichloromethane; water for 1h; Reflux;
98%
With manganese (VII)-oxide In tetrachloromethane; acetone at -45℃;86%
Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With phosphoric acid tributyl ester at 119.84℃; under 9375.94 Torr; for 8h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;98%
With Cu-Al hydrotalcite In 1,4-dioxane at 220℃; under 12001.2 Torr; for 0.045h;98%
With Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst second generation; potassium hydroxide; tricyclohexylphosphine In toluene at 110℃; for 24h; Reagent/catalyst; Schlenk technique; Inert atmosphere;98%
dimethyl cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioate
624-48-6

dimethyl cis-but-2-ene-1,4-dioate

A

tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

B

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran
13436-45-8

2-methoxytetrahydrofuran

C

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

D

propan-1-ol
71-23-8

propan-1-ol

E

2-(4'-hydroxybutoxy)-tetrahydrofuran
64001-06-5

2-(4'-hydroxybutoxy)-tetrahydrofuran

F

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

G

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; copper catalyst, T 4489, Sud-Chemie AG, Munich at 150 - 280℃; under 187519 Torr; Neat liquid(s) and gas(es)/vapour(s);A 1%
B n/a
C 0.4%
D n/a
E n/a
F 98%
G 0.5%
5-Chloro-dihydro-2(3H)-furanone
36603-83-5

5-Chloro-dihydro-2(3H)-furanone

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With palladium on activated carbon; hydrogen at 200℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 149h; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst;97.98%
4-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)but-3-yn-1-ol
160194-31-0

4-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)but-3-yn-1-ol

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 8-isopropyl-quinoline-N-oxide; [Au(1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene)(NTf2)] In fluorobenzene; 1,2-dichloro-ethane at 60℃; for 5h;96%
maleic anhydride
108-31-6

maleic anhydride

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 159.84℃; under 37503.8 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;95.94%
at 275℃; under 51485.6 Torr; Hydrogenation.an einen Nickel-Chrom-Molybdaen-Katalysator;
With cobalt at 200℃; under 102971 Torr; Hydrogenation;
α-bromo-γ-butyrolactone
5061-21-2

α-bromo-γ-butyrolactone

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With DMBI In tetrahydrofuran for 4h; Heating;95%
With nickel In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 0.75h;95%
With triethyl borane; tri-n-butyl-tin hydride In hexane; toluene at -78℃; for 0.5h;90%
succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

A

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

B

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With C36H54IrN2P2(1+)*C24H20B(1-); hydrogen; sodium hydride In toluene at 180℃; under 7500.75 - 45004.5 Torr; for 18h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Pressure; Autoclave; Sealed tube;A 5%
B 95%
Stage #1: succinic acid In 1,4-dioxane at 500℃; for 4h;
Stage #2: With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 200℃; under 60006 Torr; for 5h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst;
A n/a
B 64.7%
With hydrogen In water at 130℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 12h; Pressure; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Autoclave;A 34%
B 23%
4-Aminobutanol
13325-10-5

4-Aminobutanol

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy free radical; laccase from Trametes versicolor In water for 15h; pH=5.5; Enzymatic reaction; chemoselective reaction;95%
4-hydroxybutanoic acid hydrazide
3879-08-1

4-hydroxybutanoic acid hydrazide

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With benzeneseleninic acid In dichloromethane for 1.75h;91%
Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

ethyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate
1099-45-2

ethyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate

A

(Z)-6-hydroxy-hex-2-enoic acid ethyl ester
1092929-40-2

(Z)-6-hydroxy-hex-2-enoic acid ethyl ester

B

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

C

octa-2,6-dienedioic acid diethyl ester
15898-58-5

octa-2,6-dienedioic acid diethyl ester

D

(E)-6-hydroxy-hex-2-enoic acid ethyl ester
13038-15-8

(E)-6-hydroxy-hex-2-enoic acid ethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With manganese(IV) oxide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 48h; Wittig olefination;A 5%
B n/a
C n/a
D 91%
maleic acid
110-16-7

maleic acid

A

tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

B

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

C

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

D

4-hydroxybutanoic acid
591-81-1

4-hydroxybutanoic acid

E

malic acid
617-48-1

malic acid

F

succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

G

acetic acid
64-19-7

acetic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; 0.5percent Pd/2.0percent Re on Rutile TiO2 at 110℃; Product distribution / selectivity;A 1.27%
B 4.78%
C 1.55%
D 1.24%
E 0.48%
F 90.6%
G 0.08%
succinic acid anhydride
108-30-5

succinic acid anhydride

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 199.84℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 5h; Catalytic behavior; Activation energy; Temperature;90.1%
With lithium borohydride In tetrahydrofuran for 0.25h;68%
With lithium borohydride In tetrahydrofuran at 25℃; for 0.25h; Mechanism; other cyclic anhydrides;68%
4-hydroxybutanoic acid
591-81-1

4-hydroxybutanoic acid

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sulfuric acid In chloroform at 60℃; for 1h; pH=0.5; pH-value; Solvent; Temperature;90%
bei der Destillation;
With hydrogenchloride In ethanol at 25℃; Rate constant;
With cis-nitrous acid at 25℃; Rate constant;
With hydrogenchloride at 35℃; Equilibrium constant; Further Variations:; Temperatures;
succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 5% active carbon-supported ruthenium; hydrogen at 150℃; under 26252.6 Torr;90%
With butanediamide; hydrogen In Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether at 205℃; under 6750.68 Torr; for 2h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;30%
With D-glucose; hydrogen In Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether at 205℃; under 6750.68 Torr; for 2h; Autoclave;27.5%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [RuCl2(PPh3)2(2-PyCH21,3,5-triaza-7-phosphadamantane)].Br; potassium hydroxide In water for 48h; Reagent/catalyst; Schlenk technique; Reflux; Inert atmosphere; Green chemistry;90%
With potassium hydroxide; tricyclohexylphosphine In toluene at 110℃; for 24h; Schlenk technique;
maleic anhydride
108-31-6

maleic anhydride

A

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

B

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 159.84℃; under 37503.8 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave;A 89.9%
B 6.83%
4-hydroxy-1-butanitrile
628-22-8

4-hydroxy-1-butanitrile

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With ; water In 1,2-dimethoxyethane at 140℃; for 24h;89%
succinic acid
110-15-6

succinic acid

A

tetrahydrofuran
109-99-9

tetrahydrofuran

B

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

C

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

D

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen In 1,4-dioxane at 139.84℃; under 60006 Torr; for 96h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Time; Temperature; Autoclave; Overall yield = 100 %;A 0.2%
B 3.1%
C 89%
D 7.6%
With hydrogen; 1.0percent Pd/ 3.0percent Re on Rutile TiO2 at 164 - 185℃; for 21 - 237h; Product distribution / selectivity;A 2.95%
B 0%
C 81.5%
D 3.35%
With hydrogen; 0percent Pd/5.0percent Re on Rutile TiO2 at 170 - 185℃; for 90 - 825h; Product distribution / selectivity;A 3.38%
B 0%
C 64.14%
D 2.86%
4-{[(1Z,3E)-2-(2-furylcarbonyl)-5-oxo-1,5-diphenylpenta-1,3-dienyl]amino}butanoic acid

4-{[(1Z,3E)-2-(2-furylcarbonyl)-5-oxo-1,5-diphenylpenta-1,3-dienyl]amino}butanoic acid

A

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

B

3-(2-furylcarbonyl)-2,6-diphenylpyridine

3-(2-furylcarbonyl)-2,6-diphenylpyridine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In ethanol at 78℃; for 4h;A n/a
B 89%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

benzylamine
100-46-9

benzylamine

N-benzyl-4-hydroxybutanamide
19340-88-6

N-benzyl-4-hydroxybutanamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium In chloroform at 85℃; for 40h;100%
Stage #1: benzylamine With diisobutylaluminium hydride In tetrahydrofuran; toluene
Stage #2: 4-butanolide In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 0.5h;
98%
In benzene for 12h; Reflux;98%
pyrrolidine
123-75-1

pyrrolidine

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

4-hydroxy-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)butan-1-one
73200-24-5

4-hydroxy-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)butan-1-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With triethylamine Inert atmosphere; Reflux;100%
With triethylamine for 16h; Reflux;94%
In benzene for 3h; Heating;90%
piperidine
110-89-4

piperidine

4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

4-hydroxy-1-(piperidin-1-yl)butan-1-one
86452-60-0

4-hydroxy-1-(piperidin-1-yl)butan-1-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium In chloroform at 85℃; for 40h;100%
In acetonitrile at 30℃; under 6750540 Torr; for 96h;99%
In acetonitrile at 30℃; under 6750540 Torr; for 168h;99%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

(2S,5S)-2,5-dimethylpyrrolidine
117968-50-0

(2S,5S)-2,5-dimethylpyrrolidine

(2S,5S)-1-(4-hydroxybutanoyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrolidine
139108-39-7

(2S,5S)-1-(4-hydroxybutanoyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrolidine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With triethylamine for 12h; Heating;100%
With triethylamine for 48h; Heating;96%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

diethylamine
109-89-7

diethylamine

N,N-Diethyl-4-hydroxy-butyramide
86452-59-7

N,N-Diethyl-4-hydroxy-butyramide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile at 30℃; under 6750540 Torr; for 96h;100%
Stage #1: diethylamine With diisobutylaluminium hydride In tetrahydrofuran; toluene
Stage #2: 4-butanolide In tetrahydrofuran at 45℃; for 2h;
72%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

formic acid ethyl ester
109-94-4

formic acid ethyl ester

sodium salt of (Z)-3-(hydroxymethylene)dihydro-2(3H)-furanone
51270-64-5, 54211-97-1, 93698-26-1

sodium salt of (Z)-3-(hydroxymethylene)dihydro-2(3H)-furanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydride100%
With sodium In diethyl ether at -20 - -15℃; for 5h;
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

formic acid ethyl ester
109-94-4

formic acid ethyl ester

sodium salt of (E)-3-(hydroxymethylene)dihydro-2(3H)-furanone
54211-97-1

sodium salt of (E)-3-(hydroxymethylene)dihydro-2(3H)-furanone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydride100%
With ethanol; sodium hydride In 1,2-dimethoxyethane at 40℃; for 22h; cross-Claisen acylation;97%
With sodium methylate In diethyl ether for 12h;69%
With sodium hydroxide In 1,2-dimethoxyethane at 60℃; for 16h;66%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Butane-1,4-diol
110-63-4

Butane-1,4-diol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium aluminum tetrahydride In tetrahydrofuran at 0℃; for 0.0833333h;100%
With C31H33ClN2O3RuS; potassium tert-butylate; hydrogen In isopropyl alcohol at 60℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 48h; Inert atmosphere;100%
With C39H39N6ORu(1+)*Br(1-); potassium methanolate; hydrogen In tetrahydrofuran at 100℃; under 37503.8 Torr; for 16h; Reagent/catalyst;100%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

4-iodobutanoate de trimethylsilyle
67764-03-8

4-iodobutanoate de trimethylsilyle

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With trimethylsilyl iodide; iodine In chloroform-d1 for 1h; Ambient temperature;100%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

sodium 4-hydroxybutanoate
502-85-2

sodium 4-hydroxybutanoate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water; sodium hydroxide at 20℃; Inert atmosphere;100%
With ethanol; sodium hydroxide at 20℃; for 2h;95%
With sodium hydroxide at 45 - 60℃; for 12h;95%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

iodosilyl 4-iodobutyrate
127421-48-1

iodosilyl 4-iodobutyrate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diiodosilane; iodine In chloroform-d1 at 50℃; for 0.166667h;100%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

ethylamine
75-04-7

ethylamine

N-ethyl-4-hydroxybutanamide
42042-64-8

N-ethyl-4-hydroxybutanamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran at 50℃; for 22h;100%
In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; Acylation;
With ammonia In methanol at 20℃;
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

4-Aminobutanol
13325-10-5

4-Aminobutanol

4-hydroxy-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)butanamide

4-hydroxy-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)butanamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene Reflux;100%
In various solvent(s) for 18h; Heating;
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

Lithium γ-hydroxybutyrate
63255-29-8

Lithium γ-hydroxybutyrate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With lithium hydroxide monohydrate In methanol; water at 20℃; for 16h;100%
With lithium hydroxide In methanol; water at 20℃; for 16h;100%
With lithium hydroxide; water In methanol at 20℃;
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

phenylmagnesium bromide
100-58-3

phenylmagnesium bromide

1,1-diphenylbutan-1,4-diol
1023-94-5

1,1-diphenylbutan-1,4-diol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; ammonium chloride In tetrahydrofuran100%
Stage #1: 4-butanolide; phenylmagnesium bromide In tetrahydrofuran; diethyl ether at -78 - 20℃; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: With water; ammonium chloride In tetrahydrofuran; diethyl ether at 10℃; Cooling with ice;
In tetrahydrofuran Grignard reaction; Reflux;
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

3-bromoaniline
591-19-5

3-bromoaniline

1-(3-bromophenyl)-2-pyrrolidinone
38348-83-3

1-(3-bromophenyl)-2-pyrrolidinone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride In water at 160℃; for 36h;100%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

3-methoxybenzenethiol
15570-12-4

3-methoxybenzenethiol

4-((3-methoxyphenyl)thio)butanoic acid sodium salt

4-((3-methoxyphenyl)thio)butanoic acid sodium salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With ethanol; sodium for 24h; Inert atmosphere; Reflux;100%
With sodium In ethanol for 24h; Inert atmosphere; Reflux;100%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

methylamine
74-89-5

methylamine

1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one
872-50-4

1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water; ZSM-5 at 280℃;99%
In water at 300℃; under 75007.5 Torr; Concentration;99.9%
at 255℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 3h;98.2%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

methylamine
74-89-5

methylamine

γ-hydroxybutyric acid monomethylamide
37941-69-8

γ-hydroxybutyric acid monomethylamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 20℃; for 1.5h;99%
99.5%
With water at 0 - 5℃; for 2h;95.5%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

dimethyl amine
124-40-3

dimethyl amine

γ-hydroxybutyric acid monomethylamide
37941-69-8

γ-hydroxybutyric acid monomethylamide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
99.5%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

N-butylamine
109-73-9

N-butylamine

N-butyl-4-hydroxybutyramide
42042-67-1

N-butyl-4-hydroxybutyramide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium In chloroform at 85℃; for 40h;99%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

oxalic acid diethyl ester
95-92-1

oxalic acid diethyl ester

oxo-(2-oxotetrahydrofuran-3-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester
42564-36-3

oxo-(2-oxotetrahydrofuran-3-yl)acetic acid ethyl ester

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium ethanolate In ethanol at 0 - 20℃; for 6.25h;99%
With sodium ethanolate In ethanol at 0 - 20℃;96%
With sodium methylate72%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

benzylamine
100-46-9

benzylamine

1-benzyl-2-pyrrolidone
5291-77-0

1-benzyl-2-pyrrolidone

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate In 1,4-dioxane at 220℃; for 0.583333h; Microwave irradiation;99%
for 24h; Heating;79%
With bis[dichloro(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)iridium(III)]; sodium acetate In toluene at 110℃; for 36h; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere; Glovebox; Molecular sieve; Schlenk technique;65%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

1-iodoheptadecafluorooctane
507-63-1

1-iodoheptadecafluorooctane

2-Heptadecafluorooctyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-ol
112678-33-8

2-Heptadecafluorooctyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-ol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With methyllithium; lithium bromide In diethyl ether at -78℃; for 1h;99%
With methyllithium In diethyl ether at -78℃; for 1h;99%
4-butanolide
96-48-0

4-butanolide

1-amino-2-propene
107-11-9

1-amino-2-propene

N-allyl 4-hydroxybutyramide
98435-58-6

N-allyl 4-hydroxybutyramide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 120 - 130℃; for 3h;99%
at 120 - 130℃; for 3h;99%
With bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium In chloroform at 85℃; for 40h;99%
In benzene for 12h; Inert atmosphere; Reflux;