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Cas Database

50-00-0

50-00-0

Identification

  • Product Name:Formaldehyde

  • CAS Number: 50-00-0

  • EINECS:200-001-8

  • Molecular Weight:30.0263

  • Molecular Formula: CH2O

  • HS Code:29121100

  • Mol File:50-00-0.mol

Synonyms:FM 282;Fannoform;Floguard 1015;Fordor;Formaldehyde-12C;Formalin;Formalin LM;Formalin Taisei;Formalith;Formic aldehyde;Lysoform;Methaldehyde;Methanal;Methyl aldehyde;Methylene oxide;Morbicid;NSC 298885;Optilyse;Oxomethane;Oxymethylene;Paraform;Superlysoform;Fyde;Formol;Super Absorbent Polymer;Formaldehyde solution;TH3159 Additive Package for Diesel Engine Oil;Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov. Extract;BFV;F-gen;Sodium Citrate;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):ToxicT

  • Hazard Codes:T

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H301 Toxic if swallowedH311 Toxic in contact with skin H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction H331 Toxic if inhaled H341 Suspected of causing genetic defects H350 May cause cancer

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer immediately for medical attention. In case of skin contact Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. Seek medical attention if you feel unwell. In case of eye contact Rinse with plenty of water (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer immediately for medical attention. Exposure Routes: inhalation, skin and/or eye contact Symptoms: Irritation eyes, nose, throat, respiratory system; lacrimation (discharge of tears); cough; wheezing; [potential occupational carcinogen] Target Organs: Eyes, respiratory system (NIOSH, 2016)The probable oral lethal dose for humans is 0.5-5 g/kg, or between 1 ounce and 1 pint for a 150 pound person. Acute -- below 1 ppm, odor perceptible to most. 2-3 ppm, mild tingling of eyes. 4-5 ppm, increased discomfort, mild lacrimation. 10 ppm, profuse lacrimation; can be withstood only for few minutes. 10-20 ppm, breathing difficult, cough, severe burning of nose and throat. 50-100 ppm, acute irritation of respiratory tract, very serious injury likely. Skin -- primary irritation from strong solutions, gas. Delayed -- sensitization dermatitis. Suspected carcinogen. Effects in women include menstrual disorders and secondary sterility. Solutions splashed in eyes have caused injuries ranging from severe, permanent corneal opacification and loss of vision to minor discomfort. In people sensitized to formaldehyde, late asthmatic reactions may be provoked by brief exposures at approximately 3 ppm. (EPA, 1998)Excerpt from ERG Guide 132 [Flammable Liquids - Corrosive]: May cause toxic effects if inhaled or ingested/swallowed. Contact with substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. (ERG, 2016)Vapor or dust irritates eyes, mucous membranes, and skin; may cause dermatitis. Ingestion of solid or of a solution in water irritates mouth, throat, and stomach and may cause death. (USCG, 1999) Emergency and supportive measures: 1. Maintain open airway and assist ventilation if necessary. 2. Inhalation. Treat bronchospasm and pulmonary edema if they occur. Administer supplemental oxygen, and observe for at least 4 to 6 hours. 3. Ingestion. a. Treat coma and shock if they occur. b. Administer intravenous saline or other crystalloids to replace fluid losses caused by gastroenteritis. Avoid fluid overload in patients with inhalation exposure because of the risk of pulmonary edema. c. Treat metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate.

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media Use water spray, dry chemical, alcohol foam, or carbon dioxide. Use water to keep fire exposed containers cool. If leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse vapors, and to protect men attempting to stop leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from exposures and to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures. Excerpt from ERG Guide 171 [Substances (Low to Moderate Hazard)]: Some may burn but none ignite readily. Containers may explode when heated. Some may be transported hot. For UN3508, be aware of possible short circuiting as this product is transported in a charged state. (ERG, 2016)Toxic vapors such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are generated during combustion. Explosion hazard: when aqueous formaldehyde solutions are heated above their flash points, a potential for explosion hazard exists. High formaldehyde concentration or methanol content lowers flash point. Reacts with nitrogen oxides at about 180; the reaction becomes explosive. Also reacts violently with perchloric acid-aniline, performic acid, nitromethane, magnesium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. When heated, irritant formaldehyde gas evolved from solution. The main products of decomposition are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Metals such as platinum, copper, chromia, and alumina also catalyze the formation of methanol, methylformate, formic acid, carbon dioxide, and methane. Reacts with peroxide, nitrogen oxide, and performic acid causing explosions. Can react with hydrogen chloride or other inorganic chlorides to form bis-chloromethylether (BCME), a known carcinogen. Very reactive, combines readily with many substances, 40% solution is powerful reducing agent. Incompatible with amines, azo compounds, dithiocarbamates, alkali and alkaline earth metals, nitrides, nitro compounds, unsaturated aliphatics and sulfides, organic peroxides, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. Aqueous solutions are unstable. Commercial formaldehyde-alcohol solutions are stable. Gas is stable in absence of water. Avoid oxidizing and alkaline materials. Hazardous polymerization may occur. Compound will polymerize with active organic materials such as phenol. Will polymerize violently in the presence of caustics and nitrides; (amines) exothermic reaction, (Azo compound) exothermic reaction giving off nitrogen gas, (caustics) heat generation and violent polymerization, (dithiocarbamates) formation of flammable gases and toxic fumes, formation of carbon disulfide may result, (alkali and alkaline earth metals) heat generation and formation of a flammable hydrogen gas. (EPA, 1998)Excerpt from ERG Guide 132 [Flammable Liquids - Corrosive]: Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a (P) may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. (ERG, 2016)Behavior in Fire: Changes to formaldehyde gas, which is highly flammable. (USCG, 1999) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: gas-tight chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. Remove all ignition sources. Turn off gas at source if possible. Remove gas with fine water spray. Use fluorocarbon water spray, Cellosize and Hycar to diminish vapors. Sodium carbonate, ammonium hydroxide, or sodium sulfite can neutralize the spill.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Fireproof. Cool. Separated from incompatible materials. See Chemical Dangers.... Minimum storage temperature to prevent polymerization range from 83 deg F for 37% formaldehyde containing 0.05% methyl alcohol to 29 deg F for formaldehyde containing 15% methyl alcohol.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesRecommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hour Time-Weighted Average: 0.016 ppm. /Formaldehyde/ /Formalin (as formaldehyde)/Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 Minute Ceiling Value: 0.1 ppm. /Formaldehyde/ /Formalin (as formaldehyde)/NIOSH usually recommends that occupational exposures to carcinogens be limited to the lowest feasible concentration. /Formaldehyde/ /Formalin (as formaldehyde)/Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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  • Manufacture/Brand:AK Scientific
  • Product Description:Formaldehyde, 37% w/w aq. soln., stab. with 7-8% methanol
  • Packaging:25g
  • Price:$ 14
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  • Manufacture/Brand:AK Scientific
  • Product Description:Formaldehyde, 37% w/w aq. soln., stab. with 7-8% methanol
  • Packaging:500g
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Paraformaldehyde,15%w/vaq.soln. methanolfree
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Formaldehyde, 37% in aq. soln., ACS, 36.5-38.0%, stab. with 10-15% methanol
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Paraformaldehyde, 4% w/v aq. soln. methanol free
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Paraformaldehyde, 32% w/v aq. soln. methanol free
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Paraformaldehyde, 10% w/v aq. soln. methanol free
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Formaldehyde, 37% in aq. soln., ACS, 36.5-38.0%, stab. with 10-15% methanol
  • Packaging:500ml
  • Price:$ 33.8
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Paraformaldehyde, 20% w/v aq. soln. methanol free
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  • Manufacture/Brand:Alfa Aesar
  • Product Description:Paraformaldehyde,16%w/vaq.soln. methanolfree
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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 1565 Articles be found

Dhar, N. R.,Ram, A.

, p. 205 - 205 (1932)

Oxidation of methane and ethylene in water at ambient conditions

Sorokin,Kudrik,Alvarez,Afanasiev,Millet,Bouchu

, p. 149 - 154 (2010)

Available spectroscopic, labelling and reactivity data show that stable μ-nitrido diiron phthalocyanine activates H2O2 to form a high-valent diiron oxo species. This species is a very powerful oxidant which oxidizes methane in pure water at 25-60 °C to methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid. The catalytic activity can significantly be increased in the presence of a diluted acid solution. Thus, a high turnover number of 209 was attained in 0.075 M H2SO4. Oxidation of ethylene resulted in the formation of formic acid as a major product and formaldehyde with high turnover numbers. Under optimal conditions, 426 mol HCOOH and 37 mol CH 2O per mole of catalyst were obtained in pure water. The practical and green features of this novel approach (H2O2 as the clean oxidant, water as the clean reaction medium, easily accessible solid catalyst) as well as the relevance to biological oxidation (binuclear structure of bio-inspired complex) are of great importance both from practical and fundamental points of view.

Partial Oxidation of Methane by Nitrous Oxide over Molybdenum Oxide supported on Silica

Liu, R.-S.,Iwamoto, M.,Lunsford, Jack H.

, p. 78 - 79 (1982)

Methanol and formaldehyde were formed as major products at a moderate conversion level (16percent) in the partial oxidation of methane by nitrous oxide in the presence of water over molybdenum oxide supported on silica.

Flash Photolysis Study of the CH3O2 + CH3O2 Reaction: Rate Constants and Branching Ratios from 248 to 573 K

Lightfoot, P. D.,Lesclaux, R.,Veyret, B.

, p. 700 - 707 (1990)

The reactions 2CH3O2 -> 2CH3O + O2 (1a), 2CH3O2 -> CH3OH + HCHO + O2 (1b), and 2CH3O2 -> CH3COOH + O2 (1c) have been studied at temperatures between 248 and 573 K.At temperature above 373 K, the resulting decay traces were distorted away from pure second order at short wavelenghts (around 210 nm), owing to the presence of the hydroperoxy radicals formed via the nonterminating pathway (1a) and the subsequent rapid step CH3O + O2 -> HCHO + HO2 (2).This distortion enabled the nonterminating/terminating branching ratio, β, to be determined.Combining the present resultswith previously published work on the branching ratios gave lnβ=3.80-1470/T.Thus, although reaction 1 acts as a termination reaction under atmospheric conditions, it largely serves to convert CH3O2 into HO2 under combustion conditions.The temperature dependence of β enabled the real constant for the reaction k1, to be obtained over the entire experimental temperature range, giving k1 = 1.3E-13exp(365/T)cm31/molecule1/s, with ?2A/cm6molecule-2s-2 = 2.00E-28, ?2E/R/K2 = 1712, and ?2AE/R/cm3molecule-1s-1 = -5.61E-13.Absolute uncertainties, including contributions from both the experimental measurements and the dependence of k1 on various analysis parameters, are estimated to be 22percent, independent of temperature.No dependence of either the branching ratio or k1 on the total pressure was found.The mechanism of the title reaction is discussed and the present results are compared with existing studies of alkylperoxy self-reactions.The implications for combustion and atmospheric modeling are also discussed.

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Honda et al.

, p. 3534,3536,3538,3541 (1972)

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Epidoxoform: A hydrolytically more stable anthracycline-formaldehyde conjugate toxic to resistant tumor cells

Taatjes, Dylan J.,Fenick, David J.,Koch, Tad H.

, p. 1306 - 1314 (1998)

The recent discovery that the formaldehyde conjugates of doxorubicin and daunorubicin, Doxoform and Daunoform, are cytotoxic to resistant human breast cancer cells prompted the search for hydrolytically more stable anthracycline-formaldehyde conjugates. Doxoform and Daunoform consist of two molecules of the parent drug bound together with three methylene groups, two forming oxazolidine rings and one binding the oxazolidines together at their 3'amino nitrogens. The 4'-epimer of doxorubicin, epidoxorubicin, reacts with formaldehyde at its amino alcohol functionality to produce a conjugate, Epidoxoform, in 59% yield whose structure consists of two molecules of epidoxorubicin bound together with three methylene groups in a 1,6-diaza- 4,9-dioxabicyclo[4.4.1]undecane ring system. The structure was established from spectroscopic data and is consistent with products from reaction of simpler vicinal trans-amino alcohols with formaldehyde. Epidoxoforrn hydrolyzes at pH 7.3 to an equilibrium mixture with dimeric and monomeric epidoxorubicin-formaldehyde conjugates without release of formaldehyde or epidoxorubicin. The hydrolysis follows the rate law (A mutually implies B) mutually implies C + D where A (Epidoxoform) is in rapid equilibrium with B, and B is in slow equilibrium with C and D. The forward rate constant for A/B going to C+D gives a half-life of approximately 2 h at 37 °C. At equilibrium the mixture is stable for at least 2 days. At pH 6.0, hydrolysis proceeds with first-order kinetics to epidoxorubicin and formaldehyde with a half- life of 15 min at 37 °C. Epidoxoform and epidoxorubicin plus formaldehyde react with the self-complementary DNA octamer (GC)4 to yield five drug-DNA adducts which have structures analogous to the doxorubicin-DNA adducts from reaction of Doxoform with (GC)4. Epidoxoform is 3-fold more toxic to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and greater than 120-fold more toxic to MCF-7/ADR resistant cells than epidoxorubicin. Epidoxoform in equilibrium with its hydrolysis products is greater than 25-fold more toxic to resistant cells with respect to epidoxorubicin.

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Shahin,Kutschke

, p. 73 (1961)

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The rate of homolysis of adducts of peroxynitrite to the C=O double bond

Merenyi,Lind,Goldstein

, p. 40 - 48 (2002)

Nucleophilic addition of the peroxynitrite anion, ONOO-, to the two prototypical carbonyl compounds, acetaldehyde and acetone, was investigated in the pH interval 7.4-14. The process is initiated by fast equilibration between the reactants and the corresponding tetrahedral adduct anion, the equilibrium being strongly shifted to the reactant side. The adduct anion also undergoes fast protonation by water and added buffers. Consequently, the rate of the bimolecular reaction between ONOO- and the carbonyl is strongly dependent on the pH and on the concentration of the buffer. The pKa of the carbonyl-ONOO adduct was estimated to be 11.8 and 12.3 for acetone and acetaldehyde, respectively. It is shown that both the anionic and the neutral adducts suffer fast homolysis along the weak O-O bond to yield free alkoxyl and nitrogen dioxide radicals. The yield of free radicals was determined to be about 15% with both carbonyl compounds at low and high pH, while the remainder collapses to molecular products in the solvent cage. The rate constants for the homolysis of the adducts vary from ca. 3 x 105 to ca. 5 x 106 s-1, suggesting that they cannot act as oxidants in biological systems. This small variation around a mean value of about 106 s-1 suggests that the O-O bond in the adduct is rather insensitive to its protonation state and to the nature of its carbonyl precursor. An overall reaction scheme was proposed, and all the corresponding rate constants were evaluated. Finally, thermokinetic considerations were employed to argue that the formation of dioxirane as an intermediate in the reaction of ONOO- with acetone is an unlikely process.

Atmospheric sink of β-ocimene and camphene initiated by Cl atoms: Kinetics and products at NOx free-Air

Gaona-Colmán, Elizabeth,Blanco, María B.,Barnes, Ian,Wiesen, Peter,Teruel, Mariano A.

, p. 27054 - 27063 (2018)

Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms with β-ocimene and camphene were determined to be (in units of 10-10 cm3 per molecule per s) 5.5 ± 0.7 and 3.3 ± 0.4, respectively. The experiments were performed by the relative technique in an environmental chamber with FTIR detection of the reactants at 298 K and 760 torr. Product identification experiments were carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method employing on-fiber carbonyl compound derivatization with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine hydrochloride. An analysis of the available rates of addition of Cl atoms and OH radicals to the double bond of alkenes and cyclic and acyclic terpenes with a conjugated double bond at 298 K is presented. The atmospheric persistence of these compounds was calculated taking into account the measured rate coefficients. In addition, tropospheric chemical mechanisms for the title reactions are postulated.

Kinetics of the Reaction of Vinyl Radical with Molecular Oxygen

Knyazev, Vadim D.,Slagle, Irene R.

, p. 2247 - 2249 (1995)

The kinetics of the reaction C2H3 + O2 -> products (reaction 1) has been studied at temperatures 299-1005 K and He densities (3-18)E16 molecule cm-3 using laser photolysis/photoionization mass spectrometry.Rate constants were determined in time-resolved experiments as a function of temperature and bath gas density.The overall rate constant of reaction 1 is independent of pressure within the experimental range and can be described by the Arrhenius expression k1 = (6.92 +/- 0.17)E-12 exp(120 +/- 12 K)/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1.Experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions, and implications for the mechanism of reaction 1 are discussed.

Facile Degradation by Superoxide Ion of Carbon Tetrachloride, Chloroform, Methylene Chloride, and p,p'-DDT in Aprotic Media

Roberts, Julian L.,Sawyer, Donald T.

, p. 712 - 714 (1981)

-

Formation of formaldehyde in aqueous solution under atmospheric-pressure direct-current discharge

Bobkova,Sungurova

, (2014)

-

O(1D) reaction with cyclopropane: Evidence of O atom insertion into the C-C bond

Shu, Jinian,Lin, Jim J.,Wang, Chia C.,Lee, Yuan T.,Yang, Xueming,Nguyen, Thanh Lam,Mebel, Alexander M.

, p. 7 - 10 (2001)

The reaction kinetics of O(1D) with cyclopropane was investigated using the universal crossed molecular beam method. The detailed dynamics of this reaction was explained from the analysis of time of flight spectra and angular distribution of th

Ab initio study on the unimolecular decomposition mechanisms and spectroscopic properties of CH3OF

Apeloig, Yitzhak,Albrecht, Karsten

, p. 9564 - 9569 (1995)

High-level ab initio calculations of the structure, vibrational frequencies, and NMR spectra of the recently isolated methyl hypofluorite, CH3OF, have been carried out. When electron correlation is included in the calculations (but not at the HF level), there is a very good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical IR and NMR spectra. Four different unimolecular decomposition pathways, all leading to CH2O and HF, were studied. Of these, two mechanisms, the synchronous single-step HF elimination and a two-step mechanism via the CH3O? and F? radicals, are predicted to be the most favorable, both having activation free energies of ca. 38 kcal mol-1 at GAUSSIAN 2. A theoretical analysis of the expected kinetic isotope effects between the competing pathways leads to a clear differentiation which can be used in experimental studies.

The Retardation of Methanol Oxidation at a Platinum Electrode in an Acid Solution

Matsui, Hiroshi

, p. 3295 - 3300 (1988)

The rate retardation of the oxidation of methanol at the potential range of about 0.65-0.8 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode on a platinum electrode in 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 was studied.The rate retardation of the overall oxidation was caused by that of the oxidation, Reaction D, not via COad.From the relationship among the rate of Reaction D, the COad coverage, and the potentials, three types of rate retardation were found out: Type 1-Reaction D is not accelerated by the potential, and the rate of the reaction is determined by the COad coverage and the methanol concentration.Type 2- the rate of Reaction D decreases at stationary COad coverages as the oxidation is prolonged.Type 3- the rate decreases at COad coverages close to the limiting value.It is proposed that Types 1 and 2 of the rate retardations take place when the adsorption of methanol molecules is rate-determining, and when the formaldehyde and formic acid formed from methanol are accumulated in the vicinity of the electrode, respectively.Type 3 of the rate retardation has been explained in a preceding paper in terms of the aggregate damaging effect of COad.

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Bell,McDowell

, p. 1424 (1961)

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Photoinduced bimolecular reactions in homogeneous [CH3ONO]n clusters

Bergmann,Huber

, p. 259 - 267 (1997)

The photodissociation of homogeneous methyl nitrite clusters, [CH3ONO]n with n≈400-1000, was investigated in a supersonic jet using excitation mainly at 365 nm, which corresponds to S0→S1 (nπ*) excitation in the monomer. Besides the two types of NO(X2II) photofragment distributions, a rotationally relaxed one (Trot to approximately 250 K) and a nonthermally `hot' one (〈J″〉 = 35.5) which result from the primary dissociation step CH3ONO→CH3O+NO of cluster-bound CH3ONO, we observed the products HNO-(X1A′) and H2CO(X1A1) by state-selected LIF spectroscopy. Their product-yield excitation spectra and their formation dependence on the backing pressure revealed that HNO and H2CO originate exclusively from cluster photodissociation and not from primary photodissociation of the monomer. The mechanism of their formation was found to be the disproportionation reaction of the primary photofragments, CH3O+NO→HNO+H2CO, mediated by caging of the cluster environment. The fragments collide with, and recoil at, the solvent shell followed by subsequent recombination, disproportionation, or escape from the evaporating solvent cage. The present results are consistent with previous findings on the photolysis of isolated CH3ONO molecules in solid noble gas matrices where exclusively the products HNO and H2CO were found.

A kinetic study of the reactions of NO3 with methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, acrolein, methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate

Wayne,Shallcross,Canosa-Mas,Carr,King,Thompson

, p. 4195 - 4202 (1999)

Rate coefficients for the reactions NO3 + CH3C(O)CHCH2 → products(1), NO3 + CH2C(CH3)CHO → products(2), NO3 + CH2CHCHO → products, and NO3 + CH2CHC(O)OCH3 → products were obtained by relative and absolute methods. The rate coefficient for the reaction NO3 + CH2C(CH3)C(O)OCH3 → products was determined by the relative-rate method only. Relative rate measurements agreed with results of previous studies. However, in some cases, the kinetic data obtained using the absolute method were significantly higher than those from the relative technique which may be due to secondary chemistry and reactive impurities. Product studies revealed that methyl glyoxal is a product of reactions (1) and (2) along with peroxymethacryloyl nitrate for (2) in air. A diurnally varying boundary-layer model suggests that (2) is an important loss process for methacrolein, which can lead to OH generation at night. NO3 may be an important oxidant for methacrolein in the urban boundary layer and where urban plumes impact on forested areas.

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Rosenblatt et al.

, p. 1649 (1968)

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Strong photon energy dependence of the photocatalytic dissociation rate of methanol on TiO2(110)

Xu, Chengbiao,Yang, Wenshao,Ren, Zefeng,Dai, Dongxu,Guo, Qing,Minton, Timothy K.,Yang, Xueming

, p. 19039 - 19045 (2013)

Photocatalytic dissociation of methanol (CH3OH) on a TiO 2(110) surface has been studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) at 355 and 266 nm. Primary dissociation products, CH2O and H atoms, have been detected. Th

TITRIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF GLYCEROL AND OF GLYCEROL 1-PHOSPHATE USING PERIODATE OXIDATION

Zakharans, V. Ya.,Lipsbergs, I. U.,Valdnietse, A. T.

, p. 216 - 217 (1983)

-

Heywood,Kon

, p. 713,718 (1940)

Taylor,Blacet

, p. 1505 (1956)

-

Kloess

, p. 783 (1903)

-

-

Mann,Hahn

, p. 329 (1969)

-

-

Srinivasan

, p. 2475 (1962)

-

Infrared Matrix Isolation Studies of the Reactions of Dichloro- and Dibromomethane with Atomic Oxygen

Lugez, C.,Schriver, A.,Schriver-Mazzuoli, L.,Lasson, E.,Nielsen, C. J.

, p. 11617 - 11624 (1993)

The reactions of atomic oxygen with CH2Cl2 and CH2Br2 trapped in argon matrices have been studied by FTIR spectroscopy.O(1D) and O(3P) were generated in situ by UV photolysis of co-deposited ozone.Products were identified by employing 18O and scrambled 18O/16O ozone as well as deuterated methylene halides.Kinetic studies performed on both CH2Cl2 and CH2Br2 with O(1D) under the same experimental conditions allowed the reaction pathway to be determined.With CH2Br2 as parent molecule, three routes were evident leading to (i) CHOBr,(ii) CO...(HBr)2, and (iii) CH2O.With CH2Cl2 as parent molecule, only the first two channels were observed.Carbonyl compounds rapidly decomposed under irradiation, and CO...(HX)2 was also produced as a secondary species.

-

Kunugi

, p. 1597 (1953)

-

-

Sibirskaya,Pikaev

, (1968)

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Eloed,Nedelmann

, p. 222 (1929)

Absorption Cross Section and Kinetics of IO in the Photolysis of CH3I in the Presence of Ozone

Cox, R. A.,Coker, G. B.

, p. 4478 - 4484 (1983)

The photolysis of CH3I in the presence of O3 was used as a source of IO radicals in N2 + O2 diluent at 1-atm pressure and 303 K.IO was detected in absorption by using the molecular modulation technique.The absorption spectrum in the region 415-470 nm, arising from the A2Π 2Π transition of IO, was recorded and the absolute absorption cross section at the band head of the (4-0) band at 426.9 nm determined to be 3.1+2.0-1.5x10-17 cm2 molecule-1.IO decayed by a rapid reaction which yielded an aerosol of probable formula I4O9 as a final product.The observed rate coefficient for IO decay was near the gas kinetic collision rate which probably reflects an efficient attachment of IO radicals to the growing aerosol.The significance of the photochemical and kinetic parameters for atmospheric iodine chemistry is briefly discussed.

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Walker,Chadwick

, p. 974 (1947)

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Nonenforced Concerted General-Acid Catalysis of the Dehydration Step in Formaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone Formation

Palmer, John L.,Jencks, William P.

, p. 6466 - 6472 (1980)

At pH>6 the formation of formaldehyde thiosemicarbazone proceeds with rate-limiting dehydration of the carbinolamine intermediate, which is at equilibrium with formaldehyde hydrate and thiosemicarbazide (K = 550 M-1).At higher concentrations of formaldehyde a bis(formaldehyde) addition compound is formed, which undergoes dehydration more slowly.The dehydration step is subject to general-acid catalysis by phosphate and phosphonate buffers with α = 0.83.A solvent deuterium isotope effect of kHA/kDA = 2.6 for catalysis by ethylphosphonate monoanion and published evidence support a concerted mechanism of catalysis.The calculated rate constant for formation of the O-protonated carbinolamine is > 104 faster than the observed rate constant for dehydration and the rate constant for expulsion of water from this species is 7 s-1.Thus, it appears that a concerted mechanism can exist when it is not enforced by the nonexistence of the O-protonated species.The secondary α-deuterium isotope effect of KH/kD = 1.06 (1.03 /D) for catalysis by phosphate monoanion suggests an early transition state but other criteria suggest a central or late transition state for C-O cleavage.

Direct kinetics study of the temperature dependence of the CH2O branching channel for the CH3O2 + HO2 reaction

Elrod, Matthew J.,Ranschaert, Dana L.,Schneider, Nicholas J.

, p. 363 - 376 (2001)

A direct kinetics study of the temperature dependence of the CH2O branching channel for the CH3O2 + HO2 reaction has been performed using the turbulent flow technique with high-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the detection of reactants and products. The temperature dependence of the CH2O-producing channel rate constant was investigated between 298 and 218 K at a pressure of 100 Torr, and the data were fitted to the following Arrhenius expression. 1.6-0.7+1.0 × 10-15 × exp[(1730 ± 130)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Using the Arrhenius expression for the overall rate of the CH3O2 + HO2 reaction and this result, the 298 K branching ratio for the CH2O producing channel is measured to be 0.11, and the branching ratio is calculated to increase to a value of 0.31 at 218 K, the lowest temperature accessed in this study. The results are compared to the analogous CH3O2 + CH3O2 reaction and the potential atmospheric ramifications of significant CH2O production from the CH3O2 + HO2 reaction are discussed.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF DOLICHOLACTONE IN TEUCRIUM MARUM

Grandi, Romano,Pagnoni, Ugo M.,Pinetti, Adriano,Trave, Roberto

, p. 2723 - 2726 (1983)

Iridodial is a very efficient precursor of dolicholactone in Teucrium marum.In the biogenetic formation of the lactone ring a hydride shift from C-1 to C-10 is observed.Citronellol and its 10-hydroxy derivative are preferred as precursors with respect to the C-2/C-3 unsaturated analogues. - Key Word Index: Teucrium marum; Labiate; dolicholactone; monoterpene biosynthesis; iridane skeleton; hydride shift.

Formaldehyde Production by Tris Buffer in Peptide Formulations at Elevated Temperature

Song, Yuan,Schowen, Richard L.,Borchardt, Ronald T.,Topp, Elizabeth M.

, p. 1198 - 1203 (2001)

This technical note provides evidence for the degradation of Tris buffer in apeptide formulation stored at elevated temperature (70 deg C). The buffer degrades to liberate formaldehyde, which is shown to react with the peptide tyrosine residue. Those invo

Mechanistic and kinetic study of formaldehyde production in the atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide

Urbanski, Shawn P.,Stickel, Robert E.,Zhao, Zhizhong,Wine, Paul H.

, p. 2813 - 2819 (1997)

Tunable diode laser spectroscopic detection of formaldehyde (H2CO) and HCl coupled with laser flash photolysis of Cl2CO-CH3SCH3-O2-N2 mixtures, in both the presence and absence of NO, has been utilized to conduct a mechanistic and kinetic investigation of the atmospheric oxidation of the CH3SCH2 radical, a product of dimethyl sulfide (DMS, CH3SCH3) reactions with OH and NO3 in the atmosphere. The temperature dependence of the CH3SCH2O2 + NO rate coefficient (k2) and the 298 K rate coefficient for the CH3SCH2O2 self reaction (k4) have been measured. The Arrhenius expression k2 = 4.9 × 10-12 exp(263/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 adequately summarizes our CH3SCH2O2 + NO kinetic data over the temperature range 261-400 K. Contributions from side reactions, which are not completely quantifiable, limit the accuracy of the k4 (298 K) determination; our results indicate that the true value for this rate coefficient is within the range (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. In both reactions CH3SCH2O2 is converted to H2CO with unit yield (at T = 298 K). Our results demonstrate that the lifetime of CH3SCH2O, a proposed precursor to H2CO, is less than 30 μs at 261 K and 10 Torr total pressure.

-

Dunn

, p. 1446,1447 (1957)

-

-

Warshowsky,Elving

, p. 253 (1946)

-

Rections Of CH2OO and CH2(1A1) with H2O in the Gas Phase

Hatakeyama,Shiro,Bandow, Hiroshi,Okuda, Michio,Akimoto, Hajime

, p. 2249 - 2254 (1981)

The reactions of peroxymethylene (CH2OO) and singlet methylene with H2O were studied in the gas phase by near-UV photolysis of ketene and diazomethane.Peroxymethylene formed in the reaction of CH2(3B1) + O2 + M----> CH2OO + M was found to react with H2(18)O to produce labeled formic acid: CH2OO + H2(18)O ---> HC(18)OOH + H2O.Singlet Methylene was found to react with H2O to form methanol, CH2(1A1) + H2O ---> CH3OH, competing with the reactiom CH2(1A1) + CH2N2 ---> C2H4 + N2.

-

Ramaradhya,Freeman

, p. 1836 (1961)

-

Electro-Assisted Reduction of CO2 to CO and Formaldehyde by (TOA)6[α-SiW11O39Co(-)] Polyoxometalate

Girardi, Marcelo,Blanchard, Sbastien,Griveau, Sophie,Simon, Philippe,Fontecave, Marc,Bedioui, Fethi,Proust, Anna

, p. 3642 - 3648 (2015)

We report here on the multiproton-multielectron electrochemical reduction of CO2 in homogeneous solution by using (TOA)6[α-SiW11O39Co(-)] (TOA = tetraoctyl ammonium; - = vacant position in the coordination sphere of Co) as an electrocatalyst. First, the electrochemical behavior of (TOA)6[α-SiW11O39Co(-)] was analyzed in detail by cyclic voltammetry in dichloromethane, studying the influence of the presence of protons and/or CO2. These preliminary results were further used to optimize the conditions of electrolysis in terms of reduction potentials. Analysis of the electrolysis products in the gas and liquid phases show the formation of CO and HCHO without formation of H2. Our results tend to show that the (TOA)6[α-SiW11O39Co(-)] polyoxometalate is a catalyst for CO2 electroreduction, with unique selectivity. The cobalt derivative of the silico-undecatungstate [α-SiW11O39Co(-)]6- is a catalyst for the multiproton-multielectron electrochemical reduction of CO2, with unique selectivity.

New alkyl-cobalt(III) complexes with tridentate amino-oxime ligands: Synthesis, structure, and reactivity

Dreos, Renata,Felluga, Alessandro,Nardin, Giorgio,Randaccio, Lucio,Siega, Patrizia,Tauzher, Giovanni

, p. 267 - 276 (2001)

The oxidative addition of alkyl halides to the CoI species generated by the reduction of [CoIII(LNHpy)(HLNHpy)]-(ClO4)2 (1), where HLNHpy is the tridentate 2-(2-pyridyl-ethyl)amino-3-butanone oxime ligand and LNHpy is its conjugate base, led to the formation of a new class of organocobalt complexes of general formula [RCoIII(LNHpy)(HLNHpy)]-(ClO4) [R = Me (2a), Et (2b), CH2CF3 (2c), nBu (2d), and CH2Cl (2e)]. All the complexes were characterised by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray structures of 2a, 2b and 2c provide evidence for a pseudo-octahedral configuration, where HLNHpy and LNHpy act as bi- and tridentate ligands, respectively. The axial geometry in 2a is closer to that found in methylcobalamin than that reported for other models, suggesting steric and electronic cis influences of the equatorial ligands close to those of the corrin nucleus. The solution properties and the reactivity show strong analogies with those of the previously known Vitamin B12 models.

Carboxylation of methane with CO or CO2 in aqueous solution catalysed by vanadium complexes

Nizova, Galina V.,Suess-Fink, Georg,Stanislas, Sandrine,Shul'Pin, Georgiy B.

, p. 1885 - 1886 (1998)

Reaction of methane with CO or CO2 in aqueous solution in the presence of O2 (catalysed by NaVO3) or H2O2 (catalysed by NaVO3-pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid) at 25-100 °C affords acetic acid and in some cases also methanol, methyl hydroperoxide and formaldehyde.

Catalytic Oxidation of Methane to Methanol initiated in a Gas Mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen

Wang, Ye,Otsuka, Kiyoshi

, p. 2209 - 2210 (1994)

Selective oxidation of methane to methanol at atmospheric pressure has been achieved using a gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen over iron phosphate catalyst at > 623 K.

The BODIPY-Based Chemosensor for Fluorometric/Colorimetric Dual Channel Detection of RDX and PA

Gao, Jianmei,Chen, Xiaoxiao,Chen, Shuqin,Meng, Hu,Wang, Yu,Li, Chunsheng,Feng, Liang

, p. 13675 - 13680 (2019)

A fluorometric/colorimetric dual-channel chemosensor based on a hydrazine-substituted BODIPY probe has been successfully fabricated for the detection of RDX and PA. The chemosensor displays turn-on fluorescence behavior upon RDX with a detection limit of 85.8 nM, while showing a turn-off response to PA with a detection limit of 0.44 μM. Meanwhile, an obvious color difference is observed by the naked-eye after the reaction for RDX. Thus, in application, a two-to-two logic gate is constructed for potential application in explosives detection. Additionally, portable equipment is also developed for in situ determination of RDX.

Kinetics of the Reaction between Methoxyl Radicals and Hydrogen Atoms

Dobe, Sandor,Berces, Tibor,Szilagyi, Istvan

, p. 2331 - 2336 (1991)

The kinetics of the reaction of CH3O with H have been studied under pseudo-first-order conditions with an excess of H using an isothermal discharge-flow reactor.Three different CH3O sources were used and the decay of was monitored by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) as a function of .A second-order rate coefficient of (2.0 +/- 0.6) x 1013 cm3 mol-1 s-1 was determined for reaction CH3O + H -> products at room temperature and a slight positive temperature dependence was observed between 298 and 490 K.Formaldehyde formation was found to be the dominant reaction path (81 +/- 12percent).Further identified products were OH (7 +/- 3percent) and methanol (a few percent) which were produced by the decomposition and stabilization, respectively, of the initially formed bound adduct.

-

Vaccani et al.

, p. 187 (1977)

-

44-Methylgambierone, a new gambierone analogue isolated from Gambierdiscus australes

Murray, J. Sam,Selwood, Andrew I.,Harwood, D. Tim,van Ginkel, Roel,Puddick, Jonathan,Rhodes, Lesley L.,Rise, Frode,Wilkins, Alistair L.

, p. 621 - 625 (2019)

A new analogue of gambierone, 44-methylgambierone, was isolated from the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus australes collected from Raoul Island (Rangitahua/Kermadec Islands). This molecule has been previously reported as maitotoxin-3. The structure of 44-methylgambierone was elucidated using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques. The nine-ring polyether backbone (A–I) and functional groups (carbonyl, terminal diol, 1,3-diene and monosulphate) are the same for both compounds with the addition of an olefinic methyl group being the only modification in 44-methylgambierone.

Ziegler,Kohlhauser

, p. 92,93 (1948)

Oxidation of triethanolamine by ceric ammonium sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid: spectrophotometric kinetic and mechanistic study

Padhy, Ranjan Kumar,Sahu, Sarita

, p. 69 - 78 (2021/11/30)

Oxidation kinetics of triethanolamine by ceric ammonium sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid has been studied spectrophotometrically in contexts of many physicochemical processes. Stoichiometry of the reaction is found to be 1:6. Contrary to the literature findings the reaction proceeds without the presence of any transition metals acting as catalysts. Oxidation kinetics shows unit order dependence on oxidant, Ce(IV) and substrate, triethanolamine as well. Complex, fractional inverse order dependence on [H+], unaltered rate in the presence of added products at the initial stage and inverse dependence on added salt, sodium bisulfate are the findings. With increase in the solvent polarity, rate of the reaction also increased. Activation and thermodynamic parameters are computed from the temperature dependence observations. Suitable kinetic model and explanations are provided considering all the findings with a proposal of formation of an activated complex of the type [Ce(IV)-triethanolamine]. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Highly selective oxidation of methane to formaldehyde on tungsten trioxide by lattice oxygen

Fan, Yingying,Han, Dongxue,Jiang, Yuheng,Lu, Rongxia,Niu, Li,Pan, Guoliang,Wang, Wei,Wei, Shilei,Zhang, Peiyun,Zhu, Xianglian

, (2021/11/09)

Photocatalytic oxidation of methane into formaldehyde in high yield and selectivity remains a grand challenge due to the ineluctable intermediates. Here, we report that a {001}, {010} and {100} facets modified tungsten trioxide photocatalyst enables an intermediate-free oxidation of methane into formaldehyde with 99.4% selectivity. A durable formaldehyde yield of 4.61 mmol g?1 can be achieved after irradiation for 30 h. Mechanism studies disclose that surface defect and reactive lattice oxygen atom are crucial for the selectivity and productivity promotion. This work provides a valid paradigm for efficient conversion of methane to formaldehyde.

Method for preparing formaldehyde by photocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol

-

Paragraph 0007; 0033-0080, (2021/05/26)

The invention provides a method for preparing formaldehyde from ethylene glycol by photocatalytic oxidation. According to the method, ethylene glycol is taken as a substrate, air or oxygen is taken asan oxygen source, and a C-C bond cracked product, namely, formaldehyde can be generated under illumination in presence of a catalyst. The conditions are mild, the oxidation efficiency and the productyield are high, and the air or the oxygen is taken as the oxygen source under the illumination condition, so that the method is economical, environmentally friendly and green, meets the strategy of sustainable developed energy and has broad application prospect.

Unprecedentedly high efficiency for photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol over Au-Pd/TiO2-what is the role of each component in the system?

Cai, Xiaojiao,Fang, Siyuan,Hu, Yun Hang

supporting information, p. 10796 - 10802 (2021/05/14)

Direct and highly efficient conversion of methane to methanol under mild conditions still remains a great challenge. Here, we report that Au-Pd/TiO2 could directly catalyze the conversion of methane to methanol with an unprecedentedly high methanol yield of 12.6 mmol gcat-1 in a one-hour photocatalytic reaction in the presence of oxygen and water. Such an impressive efficiency is contributed by several factors, including the affinity between Au-Pd nanoparticles and intermediate species, the photothermal effect induced by visible light absorption of Au-Pd nanoparticles, the employment of O2 as a mild oxidant, and the effective dissolution of methanol in water. More importantly, for the first time, thermo-photo catalysis is demonstrated by the distinct roles of light. Namely, UV light is absorbed by TiO2 to excite charge carriers, while visible light is absorbed by Au-Pd nanoparticles to increase the temperature of the catalyst, which further enhances the driving force of corresponding redox reactions. These results not only provide a valuable guide for designing a photocatalytic system to realize highly efficient production of methanol, but also, highlight the great promise of thermo-photo catalysis. This journal is

High catalytic methane oxidation activity of monocationic μ-nitrido-bridged iron phthalocyanine dimer with sixteen methyl groups

Kura, Jyunichi,Tanaka, Kentaro,Toyoda, Yuka,Yamada, Yasuyuki

supporting information, p. 6718 - 6724 (2021/05/26)

Herein, we report the highly potent catalytic methane oxidation activity of a monocationic μ-nitrido-bridged iron phthalocyanine dimer with 16 peripheral methyl groups. It was confirmed that this complex oxidized methane stably into MeOH, HCHO, and HCOOH in a catalytic manner in an acidic aqueous solution containing excess H2O2 at 60 °C. The total turnover number of the reaction reached 135 after 12 h, which is almost seven times higher than that of a monocatinoic μ-nitrido-bridged iron phthalocyanine dimer with no peripheral substituents. This suggests that the increased number of peripheral electron-donating substituents could have facilitated the generation of a reactive high-valent iron-oxo species as well as hydrogen abstraction from methane by the reactive iron-oxo species.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

1-(1-chloroethenyl)-4-methoxybenzene
40811-01-6

1-(1-chloroethenyl)-4-methoxybenzene

4-methoxybenzoic acid
100-09-4

4-methoxybenzoic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
Einleiten von Sauerstoff; Behandeln des Reaktionsprodukts mit Wasser;
(1R)-(-)-nopol
35836-73-8

(1R)-(-)-nopol

3-ethylidene-7-methyl-octa-4,6-dien-1-ol
42507-63-1

3-ethylidene-7-methyl-octa-4,6-dien-1-ol

2-(4-isopropenyl-cyclohex-1-enyl)-ethanol
4717-70-8,35870-56-5

2-(4-isopropenyl-cyclohex-1-enyl)-ethanol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
bei laengerem Kochen oder beim Leiten des Dampfes durch ein auf 350-450grad erhitztes Rohr;
2,4,6-tris-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,3,5-triene
859976-33-3

2,4,6-tris-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,3,5-triene

lead(IV) tetraacetate
546-67-8

lead(IV) tetraacetate

acetic acid
64-19-7,77671-22-8

acetic acid

4-methoxybenzoic acid
100-09-4

4-methoxybenzoic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 60 ℃;
butyl-[1,2,4]trioxolane
767-09-9

butyl-[1,2,4]trioxolane

pentanal
110-62-3

pentanal

Dimethoxymethane
109-87-5

Dimethoxymethane

Methyl formate
107-31-3

Methyl formate

1,1-dimethoxy-pentane
26450-58-8

1,1-dimethoxy-pentane

valeric acid
109-52-4

valeric acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
In methanol; at 90 ℃; for 6h; Mechanism; Product distribution;
2.1%
18.3%
2.8%
18.4%
20.4%
15.9%
N,N,N',N'-Tetraethylethylenediamine
150-77-6

N,N,N',N'-Tetraethylethylenediamine

N,N,N'-triethylethanediamine
105-04-4

N,N,N'-triethylethanediamine

acetaldehyde
75-07-0,9002-91-9

acetaldehyde

diethylamine
109-89-7

diethylamine

N,N-diethylethylenediamine
100-36-7

N,N-diethylethylenediamine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
Product distribution; controlled potentiostatic electrolysis, carbonate buffer pH 10, glassy-carbon plate electrode, E=0.50 V vs. SCE, 4.0 F/mol;
para-methoxynitrobenzene
100-17-4

para-methoxynitrobenzene

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With dihydrogen peroxide; FePp; In ethanol; at 38 ℃; for 0.166667h; Product distribution; borate buffer, pH 9; further educts;
p-methoxybenzoylmethanol
4136-21-4

p-methoxybenzoylmethanol

4-methoxybenzoic acid
100-09-4

4-methoxybenzoic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With lithium hydroxide; Multistep reaction;
With lithium hydroxide; In water; Equilibrium constant; Thermodynamic data; enthalpy of stepwise dissociation, entropy changes;
p-nitro-N,N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide
26492-31-9

p-nitro-N,N-dimethylaniline-N-oxide

N,N-Dimethyl-4-nitroaniline
100-23-2

N,N-Dimethyl-4-nitroaniline

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With 1H-imidazole; meso-tetraphenylporphyrin iron(III) chloride; DMA-OCH3; In chloroform; at 25 ℃; for 0.5h;
100%
C<sub>10</sub>H<sub>11</sub>NO<sub>3</sub>S
130436-11-2

C10H11NO3S

homoalylic alcohol
627-27-0

homoalylic alcohol

1,5-Hexadien
592-42-7

1,5-Hexadien

3-butenal
7319-38-2

3-butenal

di(p-nitrophenyl) disulfide
100-32-3

di(p-nitrophenyl) disulfide

allyl 4-nitrophenyl sulfide
32894-70-5

allyl 4-nitrophenyl sulfide

Conditions
Conditions Yield
In benzene; Product distribution; Irradiation;
C<sub>9</sub>H<sub>11</sub>NO<sub>3</sub>S
130436-14-5

C9H11NO3S

propan-1-ol
71-23-8

propan-1-ol

di(p-nitrophenyl) disulfide
100-32-3

di(p-nitrophenyl) disulfide

1-(ethylsulfanyl)-4-nitrobenzene
7205-60-9

1-(ethylsulfanyl)-4-nitrobenzene

propionaldehyde
123-38-6

propionaldehyde

Conditions
Conditions Yield
In benzene; Product distribution; Irradiation;

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