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Cas Database

64-17-5

64-17-5

Identification

  • Product Name:Ethanol

  • CAS Number: 64-17-5

  • EINECS:200-578-6

  • Molecular Weight:46.069

  • Molecular Formula: C2H6O

  • HS Code:22071000

  • Mol File:64-17-5.mol

Synonyms:Ethylalcohol (6CI,7CI,8CI);100C.NPA;AHD 2000;Alcare Hand Degermer;Alcohol;Alcohol anhydrous;Algrain;Anhydrol;Anhydrol PM 4085;Bioethanol;Black Warrant;CDA 19;CDA 19-200;Denatured alcohol;Denatured ethanol;Desinfektol EL;Duplicating Fluid 100C.NPA;Esumiru WK 88;Ethicap;Ethyl hydrate;Ethylhydroxide;Germ-X;Hinetoless;IMS 99;Infinity Pure;Jaysol;Jaysol S;Lux;Methylcarbinol;Molasses alcohol;NSC 85228;Neocol CQ;Potato alcohol;SD 3A;SDA 3A;SY Fresh M;Sekundasprit;Sterillium Rub;Synasol;Tecsol;Tecsol C;Vinic alcohol;Ethanol 95%;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):FlammableF, ToxicT, HarmfulXn

  • Hazard Codes:F,T,Xn,N

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapour

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. In case of skin contact Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Refer for medical attention . Excerpt from ERG Guide 127 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Miscible)]: Inhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. (ERG, 2016)VAPOR: Irritating to eyes, nose and throat. LIQUID: Not harmful. (USCG, 1999)SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of exposure to this compound may include irritation. Ingestion may result in mucous membrane irritation. Eye contact may cause immediate pain and conjunctival hyperemia, but no serious injury. ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: This compound may cause local irritation. It may also cause mucous membrane irritation. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes. Emergency and supportive measures: 1. Acute intoxication. Treatment is mainly supportive. a. Protect the airway to prevent aspiration and intubate and assist ventilation if needed. b. Give glucose and thiamine, and treat coma and seizures if they occur. Glucagon is not effective for alcohol-induced hypoglycemia. c. Correct hypothermia with gradual rewarming. d. Most patients will recover within 4-6 hours. Observe children until their blood alcohol level is below 50 mg/dL and there is no evidence of hypoglycemia. 2. Alcoholic ketoacidosis. Treat with volume replacement, thiamine, and supplemental glycose. Most patients recover rapidly. 3. Alcohol withdrawal. Treat with benzodiazepines.

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media If material on fire or involved in fire: Do not extinguish fire unless flow can be stopped. Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Solid streams of water may be ineffective. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use "alcohol" foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Excerpt from ERG Guide 127 [Flammable Liquids (Water-Miscible)]: HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Those substances designated with a (P) may polymerize explosively when heated or involved in a fire. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. (ERG, 2016)FLAMMABLE. Flashback along vapor trail may occur. Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. (USCG, 1999)This chemical is probably combustible. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Ventilation. Remove all ignition sources. Collect leaking and spilled liquid in sealable containers as far as possible. Wash away remainder with plenty of water. Land spill: Apply appropriate foam to diminish vapor and fire hazard.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Fireproof. Separated from strong oxidants.Keep tightly closed, cool and away from flame.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesRecommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hour Time-Weighted Average: 1000 ppm (1900 mg/cu m).Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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  • Manufacture/Brand:Sigma-Aldrich
  • Product Description:Reagent Alcohol 70%,usedforhistologytissuepreparation
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  • Product Description:Ethanol-20 (5 ampules/kit) 20 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material
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  • Product Description:Ethanol-400 (5 ampules/kit) 400 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material
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  • Product Description:Ethanol-100 (5 ampules/kit) 100 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material
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  • Product Description:Ethanol-200 (5 ampules/kit) 200 mg/dL in H2O, ampule of 5 × 5 mL, certified reference material
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  • Product Description:Ethanol denatured with about 1% methyl ethyl ketone for analysis EMSURE
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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 1412 Articles be found

An efficient Ni-Mo-K sulfide catalyst doped with CNTs for conversion of syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols

Wang, Ji-Jie,Xie, Jian-Rong,Huang, Yan-Hui,Chen, Bing-Hui,Lin, Guo-Dong,Zhang, Hong-Bin

, p. 44 - 51 (2013)

A type of Ni-Mo-K sulfide catalyst doped with CNTs for conversion of syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols was developed, and displayed high activity and selectivity for direct synthesis of C1-4-alcohols, especially ethanol, from syngas. Over a Ni0.5Mo1K0.5- 15%CNTs catalyst under the reaction conditions of 8.0 MPa and 593 K, the S(total oxy.) reached 64.1% (CO2-free), with the corresponding STY(total oxy.) being 113 mg h-1 g-1. Ethanol was the dominant product, with S(EtOH) and STY(EtOH) reaching 33.1% (CO2-free) and 55.6 mg h-1 g-1, respectively. This STY(EtOH)-value was 1.47 times that (37.9 mg h-1 g-1) of the CNTs-free counterpart under the same reaction conditions. Addition of a minor amount of CNTs to the sulfurized Ni0.5Mo1K0.5 catalyst caused little change in the Ea for the hydrogenation-conversion of syngas. Appropriately reducing CNT's grain-size could improve its capability to adsorb hydrogen, thus increasing CO hydrogenation-conversion, yet did not influence selectivity of the products. The present work demonstrated that CNTs as promoter function through their adsorbing/activating H2 to generate a surface micro-environment with higher stationary-state concentration of H-adspecies on the functioning catalyst. This resulted in a dramatic increase, at the surface of the functioning catalyst, of the molar percentage of catalytically active Mo4+/Mo5+ species in the total amounts of surface Mo. On the other hand, those active H-species adsorbed at the CNTs surface could be readily transferred to NiiMojK k active sites via the CNT-assisted hydrogen spillover. The aforementioned two factors both were conducive to increasing the rate of hydrogenation conversion of syngas.

Enhanced catalytic activity of Au core Pd shell Pt cluster trimetallic nanorods for CO2 reduction

He, Lan-Qi,Yang, Hao,Huang, Jia-Jun,Lu, Xi-Hong,Li, Gao-Ren,Liu, Xiao-Qing,Fang, Ping-Ping,Tong, Ye-Xiang

, p. 10168 - 10173 (2019)

Herein, Au core Pd shell Pt cluster nanorods (Au@Pd@Pt NRs) with enhanced catalytic activity were rationally designed for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction. The surface composition and Pd-Pt ratios significantly influenced the catalytic activity, and the optimized structure had only a half-monolayer equivalent of Pt (Pt = 0.5) with 2 monolayers of Pd, which could enhance the catalytic activity for CO2 reduction by 6 fold as compared to the Pt surface at -1.5 V vs. SCE. A further increase in the loading of Pt actually reduced the catalytic activity; this inferred that a synergistic effect existed among the three different nanostructure components. Furthermore, these Au NRs could be employed to improve the photoelectrocatalytic activity by 30% at -1.5 V due to the surface plasmon resonance. An in situ SERS investigation inferred that the Au@Pd@Pt NRs (Pt = 0.5) were less likely to be poisoned by CO because of the Pd-Pt bimetal edge sites; due to this reason, the proposed structure exhibited highest catalytic activity. These results play an important role in the mechanistic studies of CO2 reduction and offer a new way to design new materials for the conversion of CO2 to liquid fuels.

Production of bio-ethanol by consecutive hydrogenolysis of corn-stalk cellulose

Chu, Dawang,Xin, Yingying,Zhao, Chen

, p. 844 - 854 (2021)

Current bio-ethanol production entails the enzymatic depolymerization of cellulose, but this process shows low efficiency and poor economy. In this work, we developed a consecutive aqueous hydrogenolysis process for the conversion of corn-stalk cellulose to produce a relatively high concentration of bio-ethanol (6.1 wt%) without humin formation. A high yield of cellulose (ca. 50 wt%) is extracted from corn stalk using a green solvent (80 wt% 1,4-butanediol) without destroying the structure of the lignin. The first hydrothermal hydrogenolysis step uses a Ni–WOx/SiO2 catalyst to convert the high cumulative concentration of cellulose (30 wt%) into a polyol mixture with a 56.5 C% yield of ethylene glycol (EG). The original polyol mixture is then subjected to subsequent selective aqueous-phase hydrogenolysis of the C–O bond to produce bioethanol (75% conversion, 84 C% selectivity) over the modified hydrothermally stable Cu catalysts. The added Ni component favors the good dispersion of Cu nanoparticles, and the incorporated Au3+ helps to stabilize the active Cu0-Cu+ species. This multi-functional catalytic process provides an economically competitive route for the production of cellulosic ethanol from raw lignocellulose.

Highly Selective Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Alcohols on an FeP Nanoarray

Ji, Lei,Li, Lei,Ji, Xuqiang,Zhang, Ya,Mou, Shiyong,Wu, Tongwei,Liu, Qian,Li, Baihai,Zhu, Xiaojuan,Luo, Yonglan,Shi, Xifeng,Asiri, Abdullah M.,Sun, Xuping

, p. 758 - 762 (2020)

Electrochemical reduction of CO2 into various chemicals and fuels provides an attractive pathway for environmental and energy sustainability. It is now shown that a FeP nanoarray on Ti mesh (FeP NA/TM) acts as an efficient 3D catalyst electrode for the CO2 reduction reaction to convert CO2 into alcohols with high selectivity. In 0.5 m KHCO3, such FeP NA/TM is capable of achieving a high Faradaic efficiency (FECH3OH) up to 80.2 %, with a total FE FECH3OH+C2H5OH of 94.3 % at ?0.20 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the FeP(211) surface significantly promotes the adsorption and reduction of CO2 toward CH3OH owing to the synergistic effect of two adjacent Fe atoms, and the potential-determining step is the hydrogenation process of *CO.

Laser-Microstructured Copper Reveals Selectivity Patterns in the Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2

Ackerl, Norbert,Martín, Antonio J.,Pérez-Ramírez, Javier,Veenstra, Florentine L. P.

, p. 1707 - 1722 (2020)

-

Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide-Derived Copper

Bertheussen, Erlend,Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau,Ravasio, Davide,Montoya, Joseph H.,Trimarco, Daniel B.,Roy, Claudie,Meier, Sebastian,Wendland, Jürgen,N?rskov, Jens K.,Stephens, Ifan E. L.,Chorkendorff

, p. 1450 - 1454 (2016)

Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50% Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5% at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results represent an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.

Photochemical Preparation of Anatase Titania Supported Gold Catalyst for Ethanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation

Wang, Dong,Bi, Qingyuan,Yin, Guoheng,Wang, Peng,Huang, Fuqiang,Xie, Xiaoming,Jiang, Mianheng

, p. 11 - 22 (2018)

Abstract: Hydrogenation of the greenhouse gas CO2 to higher alcohols through catalysis holds great promise for resource transformation in low-carbon energy supply system, but the efficient and selective synthesis of value-added ethanol by a robust heterogeneous catalyst under relatively mild conditions remains a major challenge. Based on our previous work on Au/TiO2 as an active and selective catalyst for ethanol synthesis, we report here that a facile photochemical route can be used for the preparation of anatase TiO2 supported gold catalyst (Au/a-TiO2) for efficient hydrogenation of CO2. Compared with the conventional deposition-precipitation method requiring strong br?nsted base and flammable H2 gas in the complicated and time-consuming process, the photochemical way for the facile preparation of supported gold catalyst shows the advantages of green and energy-saving. Of significant importance is that an impressive space-time-yield of 869.3?mmol?gAu?1?h?1, high selectivity, and excellent stability can be readily attained at 200?°C and total pressure of 6?MPa. The effects of irradiation time, solvent, and metal loading or Au particle size on ethanol synthesis are systematically investigated. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Hydrolysis and Condensation Reactions of Transition Metal Alkoxides: Calorimetric Study and Evaluation of the Extent of Reaction

Blanchard, Juliette,In, Martin,Schaudel, Barbara,Sanchez, Clement

, p. 1115 - 1127 (1998)

The behavior of titanium and zirconium alkoxides towards complexation and water addition is analyzed through water titration and calorimetric experiments. A simple model is presented, which allows evaluation of the mean hydrolysis and condensation constan

Fe/Fe3C Boosts H2O2 Utilization for Methane Conversion Overwhelming O2 Generation

Xing, Yicheng,Yao, Zheng,Li, Wenyuan,Wu, Wenting,Lu, Xiaoqing,Tian, Jun,Li, Zhongtao,Hu, Han,Wu, Mingbo

, p. 8889 - 8895 (2021)

H2O2 as a well-known efficient oxidant is widely used in the chemical industry mainly because of its homolytic cleavage into .OH (stronger oxidant), but this reaction always competes with O2 generation resulting in H2O2 waste. Here, we fabricate heterogeneous Fenton-type Fe-based catalysts containing Fe-Nx sites and Fe/Fe3C nanoparticles as a model to study this competition. Fe-Nx in the low spin state provides the active site for .OH generation. Fe/Fe3C, in particular Fe3C, promotes Fe-Nx sites for the homolytic cleavages of H2O2 into .OH, but Fe/Fe3C nanoparticles (Fe0 as the main component) with more electrons are prone to the undesired O2 generation. With a catalyst benefiting from finely tuned active sites, 18 % conversion rate for the selective oxidation of methane was achieved with about 96 % selectivity for liquid oxygenates (formic acid selectivity over 90 %). Importantly, O2 generation was suppressed 68 %. This work provides guidance for the efficient utilization of H2O2 in the chemical industry.

Acidic 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides with luminescent and catalytic ester hydrolysis properties

Chen, Mao-Long,Shi, Yan-Ru,Yang, Yu-Chen,Zhou, Zhao-Hui

, p. 265 - 273 (2014)

In acidic solution, a serials of water-soluble coordination polymers (CPs) were isolated as zonal 1D-CPs 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides [Ln(1,3-H3pdta)(H2O)5]n· 2Cln·3nH2O [Ln=La, 1; Ce, 2; Pr, 3; Nd, 4; Sm, 5] (1,3-H4pdta=1,3-propanediaminetetraacetic acid, C11H 18N2O8) in high yields. When 1 eq. mol potassium hydroxide was added to the solutions of 1D-CPs, respectively, two 1D-CPs [Ln(1,3-H2pdta)(H2O)3] n·Cln·2nH2O [Ln=Sm, 6; Gd, 7] were isolated at room temperature and seven 2D-CPs [Ln(1,3-H2pdta) (H2O)2]n·Cln·2nH 2O [Ln=La, 8; Ce, 9; Pr, 10; Nd, 11; Sm, 12; Eu, 13; Gd, 14] were isolated at 70 °C. When the crystals of 1-4 were hydrothermally heated at 180 °C with 1-2 eq. mol potassium hydroxide, four 3D-CPs [Ln(1,3-Hpdta)]n·nH2O [Ln=La, 15; Ce, 16; Pr, 17; Nd, 18] were obtained. The two 2D-CPs [Ln(1,3-Hpdta)(H2O)] n·4nH2O (Sm, 19; Eu, 20) were isolated in similar reaction conditions. With the increments of pH value in the solution and reaction temperature, the structure becomes more complicated. 1-5 are soluble in water and 1 was traced by solution 13C{1H} NMR technique, the water-soluble lanthanides 1 and 5 show catalytic activity to ester hydrolysis reaction respectively, which indicate their important roles in the hydrolytic reaction. The europium complexes 13 and 20 show visible fluorescence at an excitation of 394 nm. The structure diversity is mainly caused by the variation of coordinated ligand in different pH values and lanthanide contraction effect. Acidic conditions are favorable for the isolations of lanthanide complexes in different structures and this may helpful to separate different lanthanides. The thermal stability investigations reveal that acidic condition is favorable to obtain the oxides at a lower temperature.

Kinetics of hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol

Chen, Qiang,Zhang, Xuebing,Tian, Shuxun,Long, Junying,Meng, Xiangkun,Sun, Qi,Li, Yonglong

, p. 2915 - 2923 (2019)

The intrinsic kinetic behaviour of catalytic hydrogenation of acetic acid in vapour phase was studied over a multi-metallic catalyst. The rate expression was derived from the sequence of elementary reaction steps based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-model involving two types of active sites. Experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor, which is similar to an isothermal integral reactor designed to excluding the negative effects of internal and external diffusion. The reaction conditions investigated were as follow:reaction temperature 275-325 oC, reaction pressure1.5-3.0 MPa, liquid hourly space velocity (sv) 0.3-1.2 h-1, molar ratio of hydrogen to acetic acid (H/AC) 8:20. The results show that conversion of acetic acid increases with increasing the reaction temperature and pressure, but decreases with increasing the space velocity and H/AC. Furthermore, reducing the reaction pressure and increasing reaction temperature, space velocity and H/AC can improve the reaction selectivity of acetic acid to ethanol. The established kinetic model results agreed with experimental results. The relative difference between the calculated value and the experimental value is less than 6 %. The values of model parameters are consistent with the three thermodynamic constraints. The study provided evidence that the intrinsic kinetic model is suitable both mathematically and thermodynamically, and it could be useful in guiding reactor design and optimization of operating conditions.

Permanently polarized hydroxyapatite for selective electrothermal catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into ethanol

Sans, Jordi,Revilla-López, Guillem,Sanz, Vanesa,Puiggalí, Jordi,Turon, Pau,Alemán, Carlos

, p. 5163 - 5166 (2021)

Conversion of CO2 into valuable chemicals is not only a very challenging topic but also a socially demanding issue. In this work, permanently polarized hydroxyapatite obtained using a thermal stimulated polarization process is proposed as a highly selective catalyst for green production of ethanol starting from CO2 and CH4.

-

Jatkar,Gajendragad

, p. 798 (1937)

-

Effect of Mn doping on the activity and stability of Cu-SiO2 catalysts for the hydrogenation of methyl acetate to ethanol

Ye, Chenliang,Guo, Cuili,Sun, Chengwei,Zhang, Yu

, p. 113796 - 113802 (2016)

A series of xMn-Cu-SiO2 catalysts with different manganese contents were prepared by an ammonia-evaporation method for methyl acetate hydrogenation. The activity and stability of the catalysts were greatly improved when manganese content was 3%. Besides, physicochemical properties of these catalysts were investigated by N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction, H2-temperature programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results illustrated that doping a suitable amount of manganese onto silica-supported copper catalysts produced a strong interaction between cupreous species and Mn, diminished the copper crystalline size, enlarged the copper surface area and enriched the surface Cu+ species, so as to improve the catalytic activity and stability of the 3Mn-Cu-SiO2 catalyst.

Porous Copper Microspheres for Selective Production of Multicarbon Fuels via CO2 Electroreduction

Zou, Chengqin,Xi, Cong,Wu, Deyao,Mao, Jing,Liu, Min,Liu, Hui,Dong, Cunku,Du, Xi-Wen

, (2019)

The electroreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) toward high-value fuels can reduce the carbon footprint and store intermittent renewable energy. The iodide-ion-assisted synthesis of porous copper (P-Cu) microspheres with a moderate coordination number of 7.7, which is beneficial for the selective electroreduction of CO2 into multicarbon (C2+) chemicals is reported. P-Cu delivers a C2+ Faradaic efficiency of 78 ± 1% at a potential of ?1.1 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, which is 32% higher than that of the compact Cu counterpart and approaches the record (79%) reported in the same cell configuration. In addition, P-Cu shows good stability without performance loss throughout a continuous operation of 10 h.

Synthesis of Higher Alcohols via Syngas on Cu/Zn/Si Catalysts. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Content

Cui, Rong-Ji,Yan, Xing,Fan, Jin-Chuan,Huang, Wei

, p. 884 - 888 (2018)

Cu/Zn/Si catalysts with different polyethylene glycol (PEG) content were prepared by a complete liquid-phase method, and characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, N2-adsorption, and XPS. The influence of PEG content on the higher alcohols synthesis from syngas was investigated. The results showed that addition of PEG can influence the texture and surface properties of the catalysts, and therefore affect their activity and product distribution. With an increase in PEG content, BET surface area, Cu crystallite size and surface active ingredient content of the catalysts first increased and then decreased, the CO conversion had similar variation tendency. However, the pore volume and pore diameter of the catalyst increased, and the binding energy of the active component and the content of Cu2O decreased, which resulted in higher catalyst selectivity towards higher alcohols. The highest C2+OH selectivity in total alcohols was 60.6 wt %.

Encapsulation of Two Potassium Cations in Preyssler-Type Phosphotungstates: Preparation, Structural Characterization, Thermal Stability, Activity as an Acid Catalyst, and HAADF-STEM Images

Hayashi, Akio,Ota, Hiromi,López, Xavier,Hiyoshi, Norihito,Tsunoji, Nao,Sano, Tsuneji,Sadakane, Masahiro

, p. 11583 - 11592 (2016)

Dipotassium cation (K+)-encapsulated Preyssler-type phosphotungstate, [P5W30O110K2]13-, was prepared by heating monobismuth (Bi3+)-encapsulated Preyssler-type phosphotungstate, [P5W30O110Bi(H2O)]12-, in acetate buffer in the presence of an excess amount of potassium cations. Characterization of the isolated potassium salt, K13[P5W30O110K2] (1a), and its acid form, H13[P5W30O110K2] (1b), by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, 31P and 183W nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS), and elemental analysis revealed that two potassium cations are encapsulated in the Preyssler-type phosphotungstate molecule with formal D5h symmetry, which is the first example of a Preyssler-type compound with two encapsulated cations. Incorporation of two potassium cations enhances the thermal stability of the potassium salt, and the acid form shows catalytic activity for hydration of ethyl acetate. Packing of the Preyssler-type molecules was observed by high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM).

Homogeneously Catalysed Disproportionation of Acetaldehyde into Ethanol and Acetic Acid

Cook, John,Hamlin, John E.,Nutton, Andrew,Maitlis, Peter M.

, p. 144 - 145 (1980)

The complexes + (1), , M = Rh or Ir, , and + all catalyse the disproportionation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid and ethanol in water in the absence of base, and other aldehydes react similarly; rhodium hydride complexes can be isolated from the reactions involving (1).

Anderson et al.

, p. 2418,2422 (1952)

Highly active Ce, Y, La-modified Cu/SiO2 catalysts for hydrogenation of methyl acetate to ethanol

Li, Chunshan,Li, Zengxi,Ren, Zhiheng,Wang, Gongying,Yang, Xiangui,Younis, Muhammad Naeem

, p. 5590 - 5603 (2020)

Rare earth element (Ce, Y, and La) modified Cu/SiO2 catalysts via hydrolysis precipitation and impregnation method were fabricated for the vapor-phase hydrogenation of methyl acetate to ethanol. LaOx showed the most pronounced promotion in the catalytic tests. After detailed characterizations, via N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, N2O chemisorption, FTIR, H2-TPR, H2-TPD, TEM, XPS, and TG/DTA, we found that the addition of promoter LaOx can decrease the particle size while in turn, it can increase the dispersion of copper species. The strong interactions between copper and lanthanum atoms alter the surface chemical states of the copper species. This results in the generation of more Cu+ species and high SCu+ values, which are responsible for the excellent activity and stability during hydrogenation. In addition, the content of additive LaOx and reaction conditions (reaction temperature and LHSV) were optimized. Then, the long-term stability performance was evaluated over the selected catalyst in contrast with Cu/SiO2.

Hydrolysis of S-2-aminoethylcysteinyl peptide bond by Achromobacter protease I.

Masaki,Takiya,Tsunasawa,Kuwahara,Sakiyama,Soejima

, p. 215 - 216 (1994)

The substrate specificity of Achromobacter protease I (API) was examined for S-2-aminoethyl(AE)cysteinyl bonds in Bz-AEC-OMe/OEt, Bz-AEC-NH2, and AE-insulin B chain. The protease hydrolyzed all of the tested AE-cysteinyl bonds at the same rate as that of lysyl bonds. Kinetic parameters were estimated for this hydrolysis reaction.

Designing a novel dual bed reactor to realize efficient ethanol synthesis from dimethyl ether and syngas

Gao, Xinhua,Xu, Bolian,Yang, Guohui,Feng, Xiaobo,Yoneyama, Yoshiharu,Taka, Ushio,Tsubaki, Noritatsu

, p. 2087 - 2097 (2018)

A novel dual bed reactor packed with a combination of a zeolite (H-modernite or H-ferrierite) catalyst and a CuZnAl catalyst was proposed to realize direct ethanol (EtOH) synthesis from dimethyl ether (DME) and syngas (CO + H2). DME and CO were firstly introduced into the upper zeolite bed to commence the carbonylation reaction, and then H2 was directly introduced into the CuZnAl catalyst bed below to accomplish the hydrogenation of methyl acetate (MA) produced at the first catalyst bed. In this novel dual bed process, DME and CO were introduced into the reactor at the top of the first catalyst bed layer, but H2 was introduced into the second catalyst bed layer directly through an inner stainless steel tube equipped with evenly distributed holes. Benefitting from the precise control of the distribution of the reactants on the surface of different catalysts, an enhanced catalytic performance was obtained compared with the conventional dual bed reactor which introduced DME and syngas into the reactor simultaneously. The synergistic effects offered by this novel dual bed reactor were further confirmed by numerous comparative tests. Our results show that the excellent catalytic performance in this novel dual bed reactor was ascribed to the improved CO partial pressure in the upper zeolite catalyst bed. Compared with the conventional dual bed reactor, both DME conversion and EtOH yield were almost doubled in this novel dual bed reactor packed with the combination of the H-ferrierite and CuZnAl catalysts.

CO2 Hydrogenation to Ethanol over Cu@Na-Beta

Ding, Liping,Shi, Taotao,Gu, Jing,Cui, Yun,Zhang, Zhiyang,Yang, Changju,Chen, Teng,Lin, Ming,Wang, Peng,Xue, Nianhua,Peng, Luming,Guo, Xuefeng,Zhu, Yan,Chen, Zhaoxu,Ding, Weiping

, p. 2673 - 2689 (2020)

Here, we report a high-performance catalyst Cu@Na-Beta, prepared via a unique method to embed 2~5 nm Cu nanoparticles in crystalline particles of Na-Beta zeolite, for CO2 hydrogenation to ethanol as the only organic product in a traditional fixed-bed reactor. The ethanol yield in a single pass can reach ~14% at 300°C, ~12,000 mL·gcat?1·h?1, and 2.1 MPa, corresponding to a space-time yield of ~398 mg·gcat?1·h?1. The key step of the reaction is considered as the rapid bonding of CO2? with surface methyl species at step sites of Cu nanoparticles to CH3COO? that converts to ethanol in following hydrogenation steps. The points of the catalyst seemed to be that the irregular copper nanoparticles stuck in zeolitic frameworks offer high density of step sites and the intimate surrounding of zeolitic frameworks strongly constrain the CO2 reactions at the copper surface and block by-products, such as methanol, formic acid, and acetyl acid. The high-performance catalyst Cu@Na-Beta, prepared via a unique method to embed 2~5 nm Cu nanoparticles in crystalline particles of Na-Beta zeolite, is reported for CO2 hydrogenation to ethanol as the only organic product in a traditional fixed-bed reactor. The ethanol yield in a single pass can reach ~14% at 300°C, ~12,000 mL·gcat?1·h?1, and 2.1 MPa, corresponding to space-time yield of ~398 mg·gcat?1·h?1. The key step of the reaction is the rapid bonding of CO2? with surface methyl species at step sites of Cu nanoparticles to CH3COO?, which converts to ethanol in the following hydrogenation steps. The points of the catalyst seem to be that the irregular copper nanoparticles stuck in zeolitic frameworks offer a high density of step sites and that the intimate surrounding of zeolitic frameworks strongly constrains the CO2 reactions at the copper surface and blocks byproducts such as methanol, formic acid, and acetyl acid. CO2 direct reduction to ethanol is a much-anticipated research topic worldwide. A big progress has been made in the current investigation toward industry application. A high-performance catalyst Cu@Na-Beta, prepared via a unique method to embed 2~5 nm Cu nanoparticles in crystalline particles of Na-Beta zeolite, is reported for CO2 hydrogenation to ethanol in a traditional fixed-bed reactor, with ethanol space-time yield of ~398 mg·gcat?1·h?1. Peripherals-surrounded catalysts, which may be called mesocatalysts, appear to be one focus of future investigations on catalysis.

Adjustment of the substrate as rate-determining step in the enzymatic cleavage of esters and amides by chymotrypsin A

Fink,Patat

, p. 1501 - 1512 (1969)

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Active sites in CO2 hydrogenation over confined VOx-Rh catalysts

Wang, Guishuo,Luo, Ran,Yang, Chengsheng,Song, Jimin,Xiong, Chuanye,Tian, Hao,Zhao, Zhi-Jian,Mu, Rentao,Gong, Jinlong

, p. 1710 - 1719 (2019)

Metal oxide-promoted Rh-based catalysts have been widely used for CO2 hydrogenation, especially for the ethanol synthesis. However, this reaction usually suffers low CO2 conversion and alcohols selectivity due to the formation of byp

Acetic acid hydroconversion to ethanol over novel InNi/Al2O 3 catalysts

Onyestyák, Gy?rgy,Harnos, Szabolcs,Kaszonyi, Alexander,?tolcová, Magdalena,Kalló, Dénes

, p. 159 - 163 (2012)

Consecutive reduction of acetic acid (AA) to ethanol was studied looking for an advantageous catalyst for the processing of VFAs (volatile fatty acids) that can be produced by thermochemical or biological biomass degradation. A fixed bed flow-through reactor was applied with hydrogen stream at 21 bar total pressure in the temperature range of 220-380°C. AA hydroconversion activity of the parent alumina supported Ni catalyst and the yield of selectively produced alcohol can be increased drastically by In2O3 addition. Efficient catalysts, containing finely dispersed metal particles were obtained by reduction with H2 at 450°C. In the catalysts modified with In2O3 additive formation of indium metal and/or an intermetallic compound (InNi2) was observed resulting in a different catalytic behavior as for pure nickel particles supported on alumina. Appearance of metallic indium can direct the step by step catalytic reduction to ethanol formation inhibiting decarbonylation, decarboxylation, and additional dehydration. On comparing the commercial, conventionally used catalysts with the bimetallic alumina supported composite (InNi/Al2O3) the novel catalyst proved to be much more active and selective for producing ethanol.

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Roberts,Yancey

, p. 5943 (1952)

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Effect of Preparation Method on the Structure and Catalytic Performance of CuZnO Catalyst for Low Temperature Syngas Hydrogenation in Liquid Phase

Liu, Huan,Chen, Tong,Wang, Gongying

, p. 1462 - 1471 (2018)

Abstract: CuZnO catalysts were prepared by different methods, characterized by applying a combination of techniques, and the effect of preparation method on the structure and the catalytic performance for syngas hydrogenation at low temperature in liquid phase was investigated. The results showed that due to the difference of the interaction between Cu and Zn, the preparation method greatly affected the crystallinity of CuZnO. The crystallinity of CuZnO had a direct relation with the CO adsorption property. The total CO adsorption amount determined the catalytic activity, the weak adsorption of CO accounted for the methanol synthesis, while the strong adsorption of CO accounted for the ethanol synthesis. CuZnO prepared by the homogeneous precipitation with the lowest crystallinity exhibited the highest total carbon conversion of 68.6% with the methanol selectivity of 84.9%, while CuZnO prepared by the sol gel with the highest crystallinity exhibited the highest ethanol selectivity of 47.6%. Graphical Abstract: The preparation method of CuZnO had a significant effect on the CO adsorption property and then resulted in a substantial modification in the product distribution for the syngas hydrogenation at low temperature in liquid phase. The catalytic activity was determined by the total amount of CO adsorption, the weak CO adsorption accounted for the methanol synthesis and the strong CO adsorption accounted for the ethanol synthesis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Reduction of Potassium Acetate and Potassium Propionate With Lithium Aluminium Hydride in the Presence of Phase-Transfer Catalysts

Szakacs, Sandor,Goeboeloes, Sandor,Szammer, Janos

, p. 883 - 886 (1981)

Ethyl alcohol and propyl alcohol can be prepared with good yields from potassium carboxylates by the reduction with lithium aluminium hydride in the presence of different phase transfer catalysts. - Keywords: Crown ethers; Phase-transfer catalysts; Reduction

Insight into the role of hydroxyl groups on the ZnCr catalyst for isobutanol synthesis from syngas

Gao, Xiaofeng,Wu, Yingquan,Yang, Guohui,Zhang, Tao,Li, Xiaoli,Xie, Hongjuan,Pan, Junxuan,Tan, Yisheng

, p. 1 - 11 (2017)

A series of ZnO, ZnCr catalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method and ammonia solution was used to adjust the pH of the sol solution. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, in-situ FR-IR, NH3-TPD, in-situ XPS, HRTEM. The results show that lower calcination temperature is helpful to reduce the crystal size and crystallinity of ZnCr nanocrystal, as well as forming a certain amount of structure defects and hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups could be consumed by CO under the interaction between ZnO and ZnCr spinel, resulting in more exposed oxygen vacancies. We find the proper calcination temperature and Zn/Cr molar ratio for the ZnCr catalysts preparation are 400 °C and 1.0, respectively. The Zn1Cr1–400 ~ 2.0 catalyst prepared with the pH value of 2 shows more hydroxyl groups and small particle size, exhibiting the best catalytic performance both on the CO conversion (20.9%) and isobutanol selectivity (24.2 wt%).

Effect of the ZnO/SiO2ratio on the structure and catalytic activity of Cu/SiO2and Cu/ZnO catalysts in water-containing ester hydrogenation

Chen, Zheng,Wei, Shuwei,Zhao, Xueying,Wang, Dengfeng,Chen, Jiangang

, p. 14560 - 14567 (2020)

The effects of the ZnO/SiO2 ratio on the water tolerance of Cu/SiO2 and Cu/ZnO catalysts were studied by ethyl acetate with 5 wt% water hydrogenation. Notably, the addition of an appropriate amount of ZnO endows Cu/SiO2 catalysts with satisfactory water-tolerant hydrogenation performance by a decrease in the reaction temperature without sacrificing conversion. At the same time, agglomeration can be alleviated for Cu/ZnO catalysts due to the optimal addition of SiO2, which is considered as a partition material that effectively hinders the agglomeration of the Cu/ZnO catalyst. However, the addition of ZnO was not favourable for the copper dispersion of Cu/SiO2. The stability of Cu/SiO2 catalyst quickly degraded due to excessive ZnO being introduced by sintering. The copper dispersion of Cu/ZnO catalysts initially increased with increasing SiO2 content, but then decreased. The addition of excess SiO2 also led to decreased activity and rapid deactivation of the Cu/ZnO catalyst. In our study, the appropriate addition of ZnO (5 wt%) and SiO2 (5 wt%) had a positive effect on the Cu/SiO2 and Cu/ZnO catalysts, respectively.

Photolysis of Zeise salt in aqueous solution: Photocatalysis of the hydration of olefins to alcohols

Kunkely, Horst,Vogler, Arnd

, p. 134 - 135 (2012)

The photolysis of aqueous Zeise salt essentially leads to the release of ethylene, but about 10% undergo a photohydration which is initiated by MLCT excitation:PtIICl3(C2H4)] - + 2 H2O - hν→ [PtII(H 2O)Cl3] - + CH3CH2OH Since [Pt(H2O)Cl3]- adds again ethylene to regenerate [Pt(C2H4)Cl3]- the overall reaction proceeds as a photocatalysis converting C2H 4 to C2H5OH. When ethylene was replaced by 1-hexene the photoaquation to 1-hexanol takes place with TON > 2.30.

Near-infrared kinetic spectroscopy of the HO2and C 2H5O2 self-reactions and cross reactions

Noell,Alconcel,Robichaud,Okumura,Sander

, p. 6983 - 6995 (2010)

The self-reactions and cross reactions of the peroxy radicals C 2H5O2 and HO2 were monitored using simultaneous independent; spectroscopic probes to observe each radical species. Wavelength modulation (WM) near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to detect HO 2, and UV absorption monitored C2H2O 2. The temperature dependences of these reactions were investigated over a range of interest; to tropospheric chemistry, 221-296 K. The Arrhenius expression determined for the cross reaction, k2(T) = (6.01 +1.95 -1.47) x 10-13 exp((638 ± 73)/T) cm3 molecules-1 s-1 is in agreement with other work from the literature. The measurements of the HO2 self-reaction agreed with previous work from, this lab and were not further refined. The C2H5O2 self-reaction is complicated by secondary production of HO2. This experiment performed the first direct measurement of the self-reaction rate constant, as well as the branching fraction to the radical channel, in part; by measurement of the secondary HO2. The Arrhenius expression for the self-reaction rate constant is k3(T) = (1.29 +0.34 -0.27) x 10-13 exp((-23 ± 61)/T) cm3 molecules-1 s- and the branching fraction value is α = 0.28 ± 0.06, independent of temperature. These values are in disagreement with previous measurements based on end product studies of the blanching fraction. The results suggest that better characterization of the products from RO2 self-reactions are required.

Low-temperature methanol synthesis catalyzed over Pd/CeO2

Matsumura, Yasuyuki,Shen, Wen-Jie,Ichihashi, Yuichi,Okumura, Mitsutaka

, p. 1101 - 1102 (1999)

Methanol is effectively synthesized from carbon monoxide and hydrogen at a reaction temperature as low as 170 °C over Pd/CeO2 in which the palladium species are cationic after reduction with hydrogen at 300 °C.

Photoinduction of Cu single atoms decorated on UiO-66-NH2for enhanced photocatalytic reduction of CO2to liquid fuels

Wang, Gang,He, Chun-Ting,Huang, Rong,Mao, Junjie,Wang, Dingsheng,Li, Yadong

, p. 19339 - 19345 (2020)

Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to value-added fuels is a promising route to reduce global warming and enhance energy supply. However, poor selectivity and low efficiency of catalysts are usually the limiting factor of their applicability. Herein, a photoinduction method was developed to achieve the formation of Cu single atoms on a UiO-66-NH2 support (Cu SAs/UiO-66-NH2) that could significantly boost the photoreduction of CO2 to liquid fuels. Notably, the developed Cu SAs/UiO-66-NH2 achieved the solar-driven conversion of CO2 to methanol and ethanol with an evolution rate of 5.33 and 4.22 μmol h-1 g-1, respectively. These yields were much higher than those of pristine UiO-66-NH2 and Cu nanoparticles/UiO-66-NH2 composites. Theoretical calculations revealed that the introduction of the Cu SAs on the UiO-66-NH2 greatly facilitates the conversion of CO2 to CHO? and CO? intermediates, leading to excellent selectivity toward methanol and ethanol. This study provides new insights for designing high-performance catalyst for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 at the atomic scale.

Electrochemical reduction of formic acid through its decarbonylation in phosphoric acid solution

Schizodimou,Kotoulas,Kyriacou

, p. 236 - 239 (2016)

The electrochemical reduction of formic acid on a copper cathode in 85% w/w H3PO4 electrolyte at 70 °C was studied. In this electrolyte formic acid is partially decomposed to carbon monoxide and water. The experimental results showed that the formation of the products is strongly related to the presence of carbon monoxide in the solution and this suggests that CO is the key intermediate for the formation of the detected producs. At -0.45 V vs. Ag/AgCl the main products were CH3OH and CH3CHO with %Current Efficiency (%CE) of 27.6 and 25.8% respectively, whereas a part of the produced methanol(about 50%) was converted to methyl dihydrogen phosphate (25%) and methyl formate (21.8%). At more negative potentials than -0.5 V ethanol was produced by a maximum %CE of 7.9% at -0.75 V. The electrochemical reduction of a CO saturated solution under the same conditions gave the same products albeit the %CE of methanol was lower.

Cu9-Alx-Mgy catalysts for hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol

Tian, Jingxia,Hu, Jun,Shan, Wenjuan,Wu, Peng,Li, Xiaohong

, p. 108 - 115 (2017)

Cu9-Alx or Cu9-Alx-My (M?=?Mg, Ca, Ba or Sr) catalysts were prepared by a deposition-precipitation method, characterized by means of H2-TPR, XRD and N2 sorption, and applied for hydrogenation of ethyl acetate to ethanol in a fixed-bed reactor. The molar ratio of Cu/Al or Cu/Al/M and the reaction parameters were investigated thoroughly. As a result, the Cu9-Al0.5-Mg1.5 catalyst with higher specific surface area, lower initial reduction temperature and better metal dispersion furnished 97.8% ethyl acetate conversion with 98% selectivity to ethanol under optimal reaction conditions. Moreover, the Cu9-Al0.5-Mg1.5 catalyst also showed good lifetime and neither the activity nor selectivity decreased during 210?h test. Based on the characterization of the Cu9-Al0.5-Mg1.5 catalyst, the optimal Cu+/Cu0 proportion played a key role in determining the superior performance.

Electroreduction of CO2 on Single-Site Copper-Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Material: Selective Formation of Ethanol and Reversible Restructuration of the Metal Sites

Karapinar, Dilan,Huan, Ngoc Tran,Ranjbar Sahraie, Nastaran,Li, Jingkun,Wakerley, David,Touati, Nadia,Zanna, Sandrine,Taverna, Dario,Galv?o Tizei, Luiz Henrique,Zitolo, Andrea,Jaouen, Frédéric,Mougel, Victor,Fontecave, Marc

, p. 15098 - 15103 (2019)

It is generally believed that CO2 electroreduction to multi-carbon products such as ethanol or ethylene may be catalyzed with significant yield only on metallic copper surfaces, implying large ensembles of copper atoms. Here, we report on an inexpensive Cu-N-C material prepared via a simple pyrolytic route that exclusively feature single copper atoms with a CuN4 coordination environment, atomically dispersed in a nitrogen-doped conductive carbon matrix. This material achieves aqueous CO2 electroreduction to ethanol at a Faradaic yield of 55 % under optimized conditions (electrolyte: 0.1 m CsHCO3, potential: ?1.2 V vs. RHE and gas-phase recycling set up), as well as CO electroreduction to C2-products (ethanol and ethylene) with a Faradaic yield of 80 %. During electrolysis the isolated sites transiently convert into metallic copper nanoparticles, as shown by operando XAS analysis, which are likely to be the catalytically active species. Remarkably, this process is reversible and the initial material is recovered intact after electrolysis.

Insight into the Correlation between Cu Species Evolution and Ethanol Selectivity in the Direct Ethanol Synthesis from CO Hydrogenation

Li, Xiao-Li,Yang, Guo-Hui,Zhang, Meng,Gao, Xiao-Feng,Xie, Hong-Juan,Bai, Yun-Xing,Wu, Ying-Quan,Pan, Jun-Xuan,Tan, Yi-Sheng

, p. 1123 - 1130 (2019)

Cu/SiO2 catalyst was prepared by the ammonia evaporation method for the direct synthesis of ethanol from CO hydrogenation. The catalyst exhibited the initial ethanol selectivity as high as 40.0 wt %, which dramatically decreased from 40.0 to 9.6 wt % on the stream of 50 h. XRD, XPS, TEM and N2O titration techniques were employed to elucidate the ethanol selectivity change and catalyst structure evolution during reaction process. The experiment and characterization results indicated that both Cu+/(Cu++Cu0) value and copper crystallite size had great effects on the ethanol selectivity. During the initial 38 h, the ethanol selectivity obviously decreased from 40.0 to 18.2 wt %, and Cu+/(Cu++Cu0) value on the catalyst surface rapidly dropped from 0.67 to 0.39, while the copper crystallite size remained almost unchanged. However, during the reaction period of 38–50 h, the Cu+/(Cu++Cu0) value possessed no distinct change, but a further decrease in ethanol selectivity and a rapid aggregation in Cu particles were observed simultaneously. The present systematic investigation demonstrated that the decrease of Cu+/(Cu++Cu0) value was the main factor for the loss of ethanol selectivity during the initial 38 h, whereas the rapid growth of Cu particles during the reaction period of 38–50 h were mainly contributed to the further decline of ethanol selectivity.

Single-pulse shock tube study of the decomposition of tetraethoxysilane and related compounds

Herzler,Manion,Tsang

, p. 5500 - 5508 (1997)

Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) has been decomposed in single-pulse shock tube experiments over the temperature range 1160-1285 K and pressures of about 150 kPa (1.5 bar). The main observed products are ethylene and ethanol. The yields of these products as a percentage of decomposed TEOS increase with temperature. Studies have also been carried out with tetra-n-propoxysilane (TPOS), dimethyldiethoxysilane (DMDEOS), and trimethylethoxysilane (TMEOS). Evidence is presented that in all cases the main initial reaction is a 1,2-elimination to form the olefin and the corresponding silanol. A smaller contribution from C-C bond-breaking channels is also observed. In combination with lower temperature results and the thermochemistry, the following rate expressions for the elementary processes are recommended: k[TEOS→C2H4+HOSi(OC2H5)3] = 1.04×1010T1.1 exp(-30 950 K/T) s-1; k[TEOS→CH3+CH2OSi(OC2H5)3] = 4×1017 exp(-43 300 K/T) s-1. The observed ethanol product is postulated to arise from decomposition of the silanol in a gas phase reaction. A kinetic model which quantitatively accounts for the observed products in the decomposition of TEOS, DMDEOS, and TMEOS has been developed. The model includes radical reactions as well as molecular reactions of the silanol and subsequently formed products, including silicates and silyl acids. The model requires an activation energy of ≤200 kJ mol-1 for the reaction which forms ethanol from the silanol. Such a low barrier is apparently at odds with recently calculated values for the thermochemistry of some silicon compounds.

Synthesis, characterization, thermogravimetry, and structural study of uranium complexes derived from dibasic S-alkylated thiosemicarbazone ligands

Fasihizad, Ahad,Barak, Tahere,Ahmadi, Mehdi,Dusek, Michal,Pojarova, Michaela

, p. 2160 - 2170 (2014)

Two pentagonal bipyramidal complexes, ethanol-(S-ethyl-N1,N 4-bis(3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)-isothiosemicarbazide-N,N',O, O')-dioxidouranium(VI) (1) and ethanol-(S-ethyl-N1-(2- hydroxyacetophenone)-N4-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)- isothiosemicarbazide-N,N',O,O')-dioxidouranium(VI) (2), have been prepared and characterized. Their structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography, and the structural parameters are discussed with those observed in related complexes. Electronic absorption, proton magnetic resonance, and FT-IR spectra have been recorded and analyzed. In both complexes, the U(VI) centers are surrounded by N2O2 donor ligands, two oxido groups, and one ethanol in a distorted pentagonal bipyramid. The thermal stability of the new complexes has also been determined. 2014

Spectroscopic evidence for origins of size and support effects on selectivity of Cu nanoparticle dehydrogenation catalysts

Witzke,Dietrich,Ibrahim,Al-Bardan,Triezenberg,Flaherty

, p. 597 - 600 (2017)

Selective dehydrogenation catalysts that produce acetaldehyde from bio-derived ethanol can increase the efficiency of subsequent processes such as C-C coupling over metal oxides to produce 1-butanol or 1,3-butadiene or oxidation to acetic acid. Here, we use in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and steady state kinetics experiments to identify Cuδ+ at the perimeter of supported Cu clusters as the active site for esterification and Cu0 surface sites as sites for dehydrogenation. Correlation of dehydrogenation and esterification selectivities to in situ measures of Cu oxidation states show that this relationship holds for Cu clusters over a wide-range of diameters (2-35 nm) and catalyst supports and reveals that dehydrogenation selectivities may be controlled by manipulating either.

Lemay,Ouellet

, p. 1316 (1955)

Sensitization of la modified NaTaO3 with cobalt tetra phenyl porphyrin for photo catalytic reduction of CO2 by water with UV-visible light

Jeyalakshmi, Velu,Tamilmani, Selvaraj,Mahalakshmy, Rajaram,Bhyrappa, Puttaiah,Krishnamurthy, Konda Ramasamy,Viswanathan, Balasubramanian

, p. 200 - 207 (2016)

Lanthanum modified sodium tantalate, Na(1-x)LaxTaO(3+x), in conjunction with cobalt (II) tetra phenyl porphyrin (CoTPP) as sensitizer, has been explored for photo catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (PCRC) with water. HOMO and LUMO energy level characteristics/redox potentials for ground (S0) and excited states (S1 singlet) of CoTPP have been calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT). HOMO and LUMO energy levels enable sensitization of the tantalate, a typical wide band gap semi-conductor, with visible light. Visible light absorption by CoTPP results in the direct transfer of photo generated electrons to the conduction band of the tantalate, in addition to the intrinsic UV light excitation. Besides, sensitization also retards charge carrier recombination rate, as indicated by the photo luminescence spectral data for the pristine and sensitized Na(1-x)LaxTaO(3+x). A co-operative effect of these factors contributes towards nearly 3 fold increase in apparent quantum yield value for PCRC with the 1% w/w CoTPP/tantalate composite vis-à-vis pristine tantalate. After 20 h of irradiation, rate of methanol formation remains constant with pristine and sensitized tantalates, while the rate of formation of ethanol increases on sensitization, indicating multi electron reduction process. Chemical composition and structural characteristics of the composite are preserved even after 20 h of irradiation.

Efficient methane electrocatalytic conversion over a Ni-based hollow fiber electrode

Chen, Wei,Dong, Xiao,Guo, Zhikai,Li, Guihua,Song, Yanfang,Sun, Yuhan,Wei, Wei

, p. 1067 - 1072 (2020)

Natural gas and shale gas, with methane as the main component, are important and clean fossil energy resources. Direct catalytic conversion of methane to valuable chemicals is considered a crown jewel topic in catalysis. Substantial studies on processes including methane reforming, oxidative coupling of methane, non-oxidative coupling of methane, etc. have been conducted for many years. However, owing to the intrinsic chemical inertness of CH4, harsh reaction conditions involving either extremely high temperatures or highly oxidative reactants are required to activate the C–H bonds of CH4 in such thermocatalytic processes, which may cause the target products, such as ethylene or methanol, to be further converted into coke or CO and CO2. It is desirable to adopt a new strategy for direct CH4 conversion under mild conditions. Herein, we report that efficient electrocatalytic oxidation of methane to alcohols at ambient temperature and pressure can be achieved using a NiO/Ni hollow fiber electrode. This work opens a new avenue for direct catalytic conversion of CH4.

Facile Synthesis of Cu@CeO2 and Its Catalytic Behavior for the Hydrogenation of Methyl Acetate to Ethanol

Wang, Yue,Zhao, Yujun,Lv, Jing,Ma, Xinbin

, p. 2085 - 2090 (2017)

The hydrogenation of methyl acetate (MA) is one of the key steps in the synthesis of ethanol from syngas. Given previous studies in this area, synergy of the Cu0 and Cu+ species is the crux to improving catalytic performance. However, neither Cu0 nor Cu+ is easy to maintain under reaction conditions comprising abundant H2 and high temperature. Here, a Cu@CeO2 core–shell catalyst was fabricated by using a facile sol–gel method, and this catalyst exhibited excellent activity and stability in the hydrogenation of MA. It was revealed that the Cu@CeO2 core–shell structure prevented the metallic copper particles from migrating and aggregating and also significantly increased the amount of Cu+ species by enlarging the intimate contact area of copper and ceria. Furthermore, the Cu0 and Cu+ species were found to be well distributed on the interface between the Cu core and the CeO2 shell. The close relative position of the two active sites is probably the main reason for the enhanced synergetic effect in the hydrogenation of MA. New insight into the core–shell structure–function relationship introduces new possibilities for the rational design of catalysts.

Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol by using a homogeneous ruthenium-phosphine catalyst

Wesselbaum, Sebastian,Vom Stein, Thorsten,Klankermayer, Juergen,Leitner, Walter

, p. 7499 - 7502 (2012)

Simply efficient: The homogenously catalyzed hydrogenation of CO 2 to methanol is achieved by using a ruthenium phosphine complex under relatively mild conditions (see scheme; HNTf2= bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide). This is the first example of CO2 hydrogenation to methanol by using a single molecularly defined catalyst. Copyright

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Watanabe,DeFonso

, p. 4542 (1956)

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Nitric oxide as an activation agent for nucleophilic attack in trans-[Ru(NO)(NH3)4{P(OEt)3}](PF 6)3

Metzker, Gustavo,Toledo Jr., Jose? C.,Lima, Francisco C. A.,Magalha?es, Alvicler,Cardoso, Daniel R.,Franco, Douglas W.

, p. 1266 - 1273 (2010)

The complex trans-[Ru(NO)(NH3)4{P(OEt) 3}](PF6)3 undergoes nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus ester ligand in the solid state yielding trans-[Ru(NO)(NH 3)4{P(OH)(OEt)2/s

Preparation of a Cu(BTC)-rGO catalyst loaded on a Pt deposited Cu foam cathode to reduce CO2 in a photoelectrochemical cell

Cheng, Jun,Xuan, Xiaoxu,Yang, Xiao,Zhou, Junhu,Cen, Kefa

, p. 32296 - 32303 (2018)

To increase the reaction productivity and selectivity of the CO2 photoelectrochemical reduction reaction, a Cu (benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid [BTC])-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) catalyst was prepared by using a facile hydrothermal method and used in a CO2 photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) as a cathode catalyst. Characterization of the catalyst proved that successfully bonding of rGO to Cu(BTC) not only facilitated faster transfer of electrons on the surface of the catalyst but also created more active sites. CO2 photoelectrochemical reduction experimental results showed that the total carbon atom conversion rate was up to 3256 nmol h-1 cm-2 which was much higher than when pure Cu(BTC) was used as a cathode catalyst. The liquid product's selectivity to alcohols was up to 95% when-2 V voltage was applied to the system with Cu(BTC)-rGO used as the cathode catalyst.

2-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1H-indolyl-3-methyl Chromophore: A Versatile Photocage that Responds to Visible-light One-photon and Near-infrared-light Two-photon Excitations

Abe, Manabu,Guo, Runzhao,Hamao, Kozue,Lin, Qianghua,Takagi, Ryukichi

supporting information, p. 153 - 156 (2022/02/14)

Due to cell damage caused by UV light, photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) that are removed using visible or near-infrared light are attracting attention. A 2-(4-nitrophenyl)- 1H-indolyl-3-methyl chromophore (NPIM) was synthesized as a novel PPG. Various compounds were caged using this PPG and uncaged using visible or near-infrared light. Low cytotoxicity of NPIM indicates that it may be applied in physiological studies.

Stable ethanol synthesis via dimethyl oxalate hydrogenation over the bifunctional rhenium-copper nanostructures: Influence of support

Chen, Xingkun,Ding, Yunjie,Du, Zhongnan,Li, Zheng,Lin, Ronghe,Wang, Shiyi,Wang, Xuepeng,Zhu, Hejun

, p. 241 - 252 (2022/02/22)

Addition of oxophilc rhenium to decorate small copper nanoparticles has been validated to be an efficient method to prepare a low-copper catalyst for the direct synthesis of ethanol via dimethyl oxalate (DMO) hydrogenation process, and herein we investigated the impact of supports on the catalytic performance of ReCu catalysts. A series of materials including activated carbon (AC), Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2 were utilized as the support and as prepared Re2Cu5 catalysts were evaluated. The results exhibited that the Re2Cu5/ZrO2 catalyst possesses the highest DMO hydrogenation activity and ethanol yield (~93%), which may be due to its lowest Cu0/Cu+ ratio (0.13), smallest Cu particle size (~0.84 nm) a relative high reduction degree (59%). The CO adsorption behavior characterized by in situ IR spectroscopy showed that a strong metal-support interaction creates an electron deficient environment of Cu nanoparticle, resulting in a lower Cu0/Cu+ ratio that enhances the activation of C[dbnd]O bond in the DMO molecular.

Nanoconfinement Engineering over Hollow Multi-Shell Structured Copper towards Efficient Electrocatalytical C?C coupling

Li, Jiawei,Liu, Chunxiao,Xia, Chuan,Xue, Weiqing,Zeng, Jie,Zhang, Menglu,Zheng, Tingting

supporting information, (2021/12/06)

Nanoconfinement provides a promising solution to promote electrocatalytic C?C coupling, by dramatically altering the diffusion kinetics to ensure a high local concentration of C1 intermediates for carbon dimerization. Herein, under the guidance of finite-element method simulations results, a series of Cu2O hollow multi-shell structures (HoMSs) with tunable shell numbers were synthesized via Ostwald ripening. When applied in CO2 electroreduction (CO2RR), the in situ formed Cu HoMSs showed a positive correlation between shell numbers and selectivity for C2+ products, reaching a maximum C2+ Faradaic efficiency of 77.0±0.3 % at a conversion rate of 513.7±0.7 mA cm?2 in a neutral electrolyte. Mechanistic studies clarified the confinement effect of HoMSs that superposition of Cu shells leads to a higher coverage of localized CO adsorbate inside the cavity for enhanced dimerization. This work provides valuable insights for the delicate design of efficient C?C coupling catalysts.

Selectively chemo-catalytic hydrogenolysis of cellulose to EG and EtOH over porous SiO2 supported tungsten catalysts

Fan, Maohong,Mu, Shifang,Sun, Qi,Wang, Haiyong,Wang, Xiaolong,Wang, Yan,Weng, Yujing,Zhang, Mingwei,Zhang, Yulong

, (2022/03/15)

Cellulosic ethanol produced from lignocellulose biomass can alleviate the shortage of conventional fossil energy supply and reduce global CO2 emissions. Wherein, hydrogenolysis of cellulose to ethanol is a new method for the synthesis of fuel ethanol, which could theoretically utilizes all carbon atoms in glucose in the direct retro-aldol condensation (RAC) reaction to produce ethanol, and can potentially break through the technical bottleneck of biological methods. Herein, we show that the benefits of the mesoporous structure of tungsten-based catalysts can be leveraged to influence the selective hydrogenolysis of cellulose into C2 products. Comparing the performance of different pore size SiO2 supported tungsten catalysts and detailed characterizations revealed that the mesoporous structure of supports can affect the morphology, crystal sizes, and surface chemistry of the catalysts, which presented a combined effect on the hydrogenolysis reaction. Whereby, 51.5 wt% ethylene glycol (EG) was obtained from the direct hydrogenolysis of cellulose over Ru-WOx/SiO2 (500 ?) catalyst under 513 K, and 40.5 wt% ethanol (EtOH) was obtained from the direct hydrogenolysis of cellulose over Ir-WOx/SiO2 (500 ?) catalyst under 553 K, respectively.

(Hexamethylbenzene)Ru catalysts for the Aldehyde-Water Shift reaction

Phearman, Alexander S.,Moore, Jewelianna M.,Bhagwandin, Dayanni D.,Goldberg, Jonathan M.,Heinekey, D. Michael,Goldberg, Karen I.

supporting information, p. 1609 - 1615 (2021/03/09)

The Aldehyde-Water Shift (AWS) reaction uses H2O as a benign oxidant to convert aldehydes to carboxylic acids, producing H2, a valuable reagent and fuel, as its sole byproduct. (Hexamethylbenzene)RuIIcomplexes are demonstrated to have higher activity and selectivity (up to 95%) for AWS over disproportionation than previously reported catalysts.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

ethyl N-(4-nitrophenyl)oxamate
5416-11-5

ethyl N-(4-nitrophenyl)oxamate

furan-2,3,5(4H)-trione pyridine (1:1)

furan-2,3,5(4H)-trione pyridine (1:1)

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

4-nitro-aniline
100-01-6,104810-17-5

4-nitro-aniline

Conditions
Conditions Yield
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

1,1-diethoxy-octane
54889-48-4

1,1-diethoxy-octane

1,1-dimethoxyoctane
10022-28-3

1,1-dimethoxyoctane

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

1-Ethoxy-1-methoxy-octane
127248-86-6

1-Ethoxy-1-methoxy-octane

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With hydrogenchloride; at 24.9 ℃; Kinetics; Thermodynamic data; Rate constant; E(excit.), ΔH(excit.), ΔS(excit.), var. temp., equilibrium constant;
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

ethyl trimethylsilyl ether
1825-62-3

ethyl trimethylsilyl ether

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

Trimethylmethoxysilane
1825-61-2

Trimethylmethoxysilane

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 21.9 ℃; Equilibrium constant;
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

1-Ethoxy-1-methoxy-octane
127248-86-6

1-Ethoxy-1-methoxy-octane

1,1-dimethoxyoctane
10022-28-3

1,1-dimethoxyoctane

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With hydrogenchloride; at 24.9 ℃; Equilibrium constant; Rate constant; Kinetics; var. temp., energy data: ΔH(excit.), ΔS(excit.), EA;
[(dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio]-butanedioic acid, diethyl ester
121-75-5

[(dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio]-butanedioic acid, diethyl ester

sodium O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate
26377-29-7

sodium O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

fumaric acid disodium salt
17013-01-3

fumaric acid disodium salt

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With sodium hydroxide; Mechanism; Voltammetry of the reduction;
ethyl 2,4-dinitro benzoate
33672-95-6

ethyl 2,4-dinitro benzoate

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid
610-30-0

2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With potassium hydroxide; In water; dimethyl sulfoxide; at 25 ℃; Mechanism; Rate constant; Equilibrium constant;
ethyl 4-nitrophenyl malonate
24161-55-5

ethyl 4-nitrophenyl malonate

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

malonic acid
141-82-2

malonic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With pH = 5.05; In water; at 30.6 ℃; under 750.06 Torr; Mechanism; Rate constant; Thermodynamic data; pressure-dependence of rates of elimination; activation parameters for hydrolysis: ΔV(excit.), ΔS(excit.), EA(excit.); var. press.;
O-ethyl 4-methoxythiobenzoate
10602-66-1

O-ethyl 4-methoxythiobenzoate

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

4-methoxybenzoic acid
100-09-4

4-methoxybenzoic acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With water; at 25 ℃; Mechanism; Rate constant;
butanoic acid ethyl ester
105-54-4

butanoic acid ethyl ester

hexan-1-ol
111-27-3

hexan-1-ol

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

hexyl butyrate
2639-63-6

hexyl butyrate

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With Lipase enzyme preparation; In benzene; Kinetics; Ambient temperature; Lipases catalyzed transesterification;
diethoxy dimethylsilane
78-62-6

diethoxy dimethylsilane

butan-1-ol
71-36-3

butan-1-ol

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

me2Si(Oet)(On-bu)
18246-71-4

me2Si(Oet)(On-bu)

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With iodine; at 20 ℃; Equilibrium constant;

Global suppliers and manufacturers

Global( 117) Suppliers
  • Company Name
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  • Contact Tel
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  • Main Products
  • Country
  • Hangzhou Dingyan Chem Co., Ltd
  • Business Type:Trading Company
  • Contact Tel:86-571-86465881,86-571-87157530,86-571-88025800
  • Emails:sales@dingyanchem.com
  • Main Products:95
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • EAST CHEMSOURCES LIMITED
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-532-81906761
  • Emails:josen@eastchem-cn.com
  • Main Products:97
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Shaanxi BLOOM TECH Co.,Ltd
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:+86-29-86470566
  • Emails:sales@bloomtechz.com
  • Main Products:80
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Afine Chemicals Limited
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:+86-571-85134551
  • Emails:info@afinechem.com
  • Main Products:92
  • Country:China (Mainland)
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